THE ROOTS OF THE 1966 CRISIS, PART 1: MONEY

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1/8 Initial troubles centred on the financial position of Buganda, leading to protracted wrangles between Entebbe and Mmengo over the interpretation of Article 1 of schedule 9 of the 1962 constitution (See pp. 173-4 1962 Constitution at compatriotto, http://www.scribd.com/doc/20262240/Uganda-Constitution-1962).  The Central government sought to deduct from its grants to Mmengo additional revenue accruing to Buganda from graduated tax on non-Africans, rents received from public land, leases to urban authorities etc.
2/8 Earlier on, the Relationship Commission (Munster Commission) had laid out the means through which the central government would maintain firm financial discipline over local authorities but curiously, Mmengo did not think that those stipulations applied to Buganda insisting that its relationship with the centre was special and different from that of other local authorities.  This (mistaken) view was largely informed by the leverage Buganda had over the UPC government, having eased it into power through the UPC-KY alliance.  In spite of that, though, AM Obote is remembered to have insisted that, “we refuse to sign a blank cheque to the Buganda Government”.
3/8 For all its feeling of being special, Buganda was however not assisted by the never-ending financial misdemeanours by the Michael Kintu ministry (Kintu was the Katiikiro until he was deposed in 1964 after Buganda lost in the referendum over the “lost counties”).  While Buganda had £1 million in its coffers by the end of 1958, this had dwindled to a mere £465,000 in 1960.  In 1963, it was in the red by £226,863.
4/8 In 1965, the Planning Commission of the Buganda Government warned that the Kabaka’s government was on the brink of bankruptcy and that the ministers whose nepotism had reached new limits were the worst offenders.  The report also sent out danger signs on the state of morale of the Buganda civil service which it warned, had reached a very low ebb.  Another report of a committee led by a Makerere academic, DP Ghai warned that the feeble control by the central government on public expenditure in the kingdom had resulted in a perilous financial situation at Mmengo.
5/8 In 1965, Buganda finances were already in a considerable overdraft but even then, Mmengo went ahead to craft a budget that right from conception, suffered a deficit of £430,000, all this on top of a sum of £200,000 loaned internally to key officials at Mmengo for personal use.
6/8 Through all this, the services that had been transferred to the Buganda government as a federal authority were being heavily subsidised by the central government.  Even in the face of that reality and evidence of financial indiscipline, Mmengo wanted the payer of the piper not to have anything to do with calling the tune: the Kabaka Government insisted that in spite of Central government subsidies, Mmengo was entitled to spend according to its own policies and legislation.  Entebbe on the other had insisted that it was not obliged to subsidise schemes over which it had no control, particularly in light of reports of serious financial impropriety on the part of the Kabaka Government.
7/8 All this tussling was happening against the backdrop of the pending resolution of the thorny question of the “lost counties” (Buyaga and Bugangaizi) of Bunyoro; which the 1961 Constitutional Conference, attended by Buganda, was supposed to be resolved by a referendum to be held by the central government on a convenient date not earlier than two years after independence, i.e., after 8th October 1964.
8/8 Thus the stage was set for a serious political stalemate between Entebbe and Mmengo……
TO BE CONTINUED

About ekitibwakyabuganda

Ba Ssebo ne ba Nyabo, Twebaza Abaganda bonna abulumulirwa Obuganda . Era twebaza ne mikwano gya Buganda gyonna wonna wegiri munsi yonna. Omukutu guno gwatandikibwawo nga e’kigendererwa kwe kuyigiriza abantu ebintu ebikwatagana no’Buganda era nokuwanyisiganya ebilowozo nebanaffe abatali Baganda. Abaganda ne mikwano gya Buganda mukozese omukisa guno muwereze ebirowozo byamwe no’bubaka bwona obunaagasa Abaganda na’baana Buganda berizala mu maaso eyo. Obumu ku bubaka obuwerezebwa ku mukutu guno bugyibwa mukuwanyisiganya ebirowozo okubera kumukutu gwa Ugandan’s at Heart (UAH) Forum ogwatandikibwawo Mwami Abbey Kibirige Semuwemba. Era twebaza muzukulu wa Kintu ne Nnambi ono olw’omulimu gwakoledde bana Uganda bonna abali e’bunayira mungeri yo kubagatta mu byempuliziganya no’kutumbula okukolaganira awamu.

19 responses »

  1. My friend Corporal Otto,

    Is this an academic piece of work you have written? If so give us the source
    so we can read it in one go rather than piecemeal. I don’t want to read
    snippets. I want to read the whole and in one go.

    George O. Pacu-Otto

  2. Mr Okello George,

    Lance Corporals are zero academics.

    Lance Corporal (Rtd) Patrick Otto
    “THE SAME HEAT THAT MELTS THE BUTTER HARDENS THE EGG”

  3. Yet another article on Buganda?? They don’t pay you for originality, do
    they?

    JB

  4. Bw. Otto,

    You seem to re be rewriting history always in your favour, but leaving out
    many facts. Don’t forget -amasanga -ivory stolen from Congo. President
    (Kabaka) Muteesa II wanted the Uganda Parliament to probe Milton Obote, then
    Prime Minister, and other Cabinet ministers including Idi Amin who was in
    charge of the Army. The 1966 Crisis was also financial, so by ursurping
    power, in a bloody take over of Govt., declaring himself President, Obote
    swept everything under the rug by also abrogating the Constitution.
    Corruption has always been there, as well the Ugandan Army being used by
    politicians to invade neighbouring Congo for its natural resources and steal
    them.

    Rev. Jessica
    Be strong and courageous. Do not be terrified; do not be discouraged, for
    the LORD your God will be with you wherever you go.” (Joshua 1:9)

  5. Reverend Nakawombe,

    Be strong and courageous. Do not be terrified; do not be discouraged, for
    the Corporal will bring those facts when the time is due.

    I do not give you the appetizer and you then immediately petition me for the
    dessert!

    Now, read the following verses and you will learn how to be a patient
    Reverend. They are all on patience:

    · Acts 8:32

    · Matthew 27:14

    · Titus 2:2

    · 2 Peter 1:6

    · James 1:4

    · Romans 5:3

    · Romans 5:4

    · Romans 15:4

    · 1 Peter 2:20

    · Hebrews 12:1

    · Luke 8:15

    · Romans 2:7

    · Galatians 6:9

    · Revelation 1:9

    · James 5:10

    · Hebrews 6:15

    · Luke 2:25

    · James 5:7

    · Revelation 2:2-3

    · Ecclesiastes 7:8

    · 2 Peter 1:6

    · Luke 21:19

    · Romans 15:5
    · Isaiah 53:7

    Lance Corporal (Rtd) Patrick Otto

  6. The Rev. Jessica Nakawombe:

    My humble greetings to you Reverend Jessica.
    I am sorry to interfere in this conversation. But what I wanted to tell
    you and the readers of this forum is that.

    1. The late Apollo Milton Obote did not, I repeat did not and was not
    involved in AMASANGA – IVORY. It is a NO NO NO.

    I do feel a bit ashamed to read something like that coming from you a very
    religious person.
    My cousin brother is a Catholic Father, when we read this type of letter, we
    could not believe it came from you. I would encourage you to check what you
    write before you write down.
    I don’t think the Good Lord will forgive you of what you have written.

    The whole world knows, that it was the Late Idi Amin and Bob Astral, and
    others, nothing to do with the late Obote. I repeat NO NO. May be you are
    dreaming.
    That is why The Late Iddi Amin Took Over the Government, because he was to
    be put into prison after the President Obote’s return from Singe Pole
    Commonwealth Conference.

    It is also very dangerous for a person of your personality’s to have
    something like a hate in your heart.

    I think you just hate Obote that is all.

    He did a lot of Good Things in Uganda and there is no doubt about that
    whatever you say,or whatever they will hate him. Why don’t’ people hate
    Iddi Amin, Prof. Lule, QC Binaisa, Ben. Kiwanuka???? I have wondered many
    times.

    Well, we leave that to the Almighty Lord to judge.

    If you also believe in God the Almight the Father, The Son And the Holly
    Spirit.

    What I have known with us Ugandans, is that when you are bad they will
    rejoice you and when you are good they will hate you.

    That is why the Sudanese, and Rwandans are ruling us. The profit of hate
    to each other Ugandans. Even if you were a Muganda they will say you are
    from Budu, Kyaggwe, and so on. There is only one Tribe that brings always
    this types of trouble in Uganda.

    They Basoga, The Iteso, The Luo, The Banyoro, The Bakigga, The Batoro, and
    so on. They do not hate Obote why us Baganda???

    May the Good Lord help.
    Ugandan Citizen.
    jnansikombi@yahoo.com

  7. Whoever you are, under which pseudo,

    You should be well informed before trying to slander others. Much as you
    always want to call Baganda bad, and pseudo yourself as a Muganda, history
    has it differently. Every Nansikombi is not a Muganda. Check out the lawyer,
    Semei Nyanzi, or others like Matia Mulumba! Abaganda bagamba nti,
    “Eyakusinze….”

    When we keep quiet it does not mean we are stupid or fools.

    Statement of facts from history does not mean hatred. I myself grew up in
    the Stae of Emergency for Buganda ONLY during Obote I’s reign. So who was
    hated? Jugdement is for you.

    Every year, the Jews, the Armenians, the Rwandese, the Chinese, S. Africans,
    English, USA, etc, name it, come together to remember their history!

    Yahoo search of – obote and illegal ivory trade – brings out over 1,440
    results!!! You may imagine that I collaborated with them!
    More follows….

    Obote’s rivals for leadership within the UPC, supported by some Baganda
    politicians and others who were hostile to Obote, used the evidence revealed
    by Amin’s casual bank deposit to claim that the prime minister and his
    closest associates were corrupt and had conducted secret foreign policy for
    personal gain, in the amount of £25,000 each. Obote denied the charge and
    said the money had been spent to buy the munitions for Olenga’s Congolese
    troops. On February 4, 1966, while Obote was away on a trip to the north of
    the country, an effective “no confidence” vote against Obote was passed by
    the UPC Mps. This attempt to remove Obote appeared to be organized by UPC
    Secretary General Grace S.K. Ibingira, closely supported by the UPC leader
    from Bunyoro, George Magezi, and a number of other southern UPC notables.
    Only the radical UPC member, John Kakonge, voted against the motion.
    Because he was faced with a nearly unanimous disavowal by his governing
    party and national parliament, many people expected Obote to resign.
    Instead, Obote turned to Idi Amin and the army, and, in effect, carried out
    a coup d’état against his own government in order to stay in power. Obote
    suspended the constitution,
    arrested the offending UPC ministers, and assumed control of the state. He
    forced a new constitution through parliament without a reading and without
    the necessary quorum. That constitution abolished the federal powers of the
    kingdoms, most notably the internal autonomy enjoyed by Buganda, and
    concentrated presidential powers in the prime minister’s office. The kabaka
    objected, and Buganda prepared to wage a legal battle. Baganda leaders
    rhetorically demanded that Obote’s “illegal” government remove itself from
    Buganda soil.
    Buganda, however, once again miscalculated, for Obote was not interested in
    negotiating. Instead, he sent Idi Amin and loyal troops to attack the
    kabaka’s palace on nearby Mengo
    Hill. The palace was defended by a small group of bodyguards armed with
    rifles and
    shotguns. Amin’s troops had heavy
    weapons but were reluctant to press the attack until Obote became impatient
    and demanded results. By the time the
    Battle of Mengo Hill
    resulted in the palace being overrun, the kabaka had taken advantage of a
    cloudburst to exit over the rear
    wall. He hailed a passing taxi and
    was driven off to exile. After the assault, Obote was reasonably secure from
    open opposition. The new republican 1967 constitution abolished the kingdoms
    altogether. Buganda was divided into four districts and ruled through
    martial law, a forerunner of the military domination over the civilian
    population that all of Uganda would experience after 1971.
    http://www.country-data.com/cgi-bin/query/r-14034.html

    http://www.mongabay.com/reference/country_studies/uganda/HISTORY.html

    Rev. Jessica
    Be strong and courageous. Do not be terrified; do not be discouraged, for
    the LORD your God will be with you wherever you go.” (Joshua 1:9)

    _____

  8. Dear Rev. Nakawombe:

    Good morning and how are you getting on with day to day life.

    As a christian, I am writing this letter to you although it might be my last
    e-mail trying to acknowledge you of the e-mail I responded about (THE ROOTS
    OF THE 1966 CRISIS PART 1).

    Thank you for your press,Yahoo and including Google all which you added on
    to explaining of what had happened in Uganda’s history.

    I do not know the Criteria that a Muganda has to have?

    I am proud to be called a Ugandan for that matter, and I am.
    So, the Lates. Ben Kiwanuka, Dr. Lumu, Ignatius Musazi, Amos Ssempa, Kalule
    Setala, Sebbana Kizito, Lameck Lubowa, Sam Ssebagereka,Mrs. Florence Lubega,
    QC. Binayisa Mayanja Nkanji, the late Abbu Mayanja and many many others
    who have served at the National Level are NOT Baganda?

    I am one of those who would prefer to be known as A Ugandan and I am very
    very proud of being a Ugandan. That is all I can say.

    You quoted Mr. Matia Mulumba I have not met him. and Lawyer Semei Nyanzi I
    seem to know him, he is the husband of the late Michel Kaggwas’ sister, the
    daughter of the late Katikiro Sir. Apollo Kaggwa. I do remember him very
    well and I don’t think, he claims to be a Muganda?

    1966 Crisis I do remember too that it was not The late Iddi Amin who was
    Over roll of the Army.
    I remember Brig: Opolot was and he was the brother-in-Law of the former
    Katikiro/ Mayor Sir. Kavuma I was also very young and I was supposed to be
    one of the bridesmaids on their wedding, at that time. Civilian Government
    all over the world always have a Special Force-Agents. It was Special
    Force which was sent to Bulange, before the Military. The late His
    Excellency the King Mutebi was the President of Uganda. The late Apollo M.
    Obote was the Prime Minister. He told the Prime Minister to take the
    Government out of Buganda Soil. That is how it started.

    I have not called any person or think of any person of being Stupid or
    Foolish.
    That is not my type of personality.

    I love all Ugandans with my heart and I feel sorry of what is happening in
    our beloved Country.
    I think I know some little history of Uganda. As for the money you motioned
    about British $25,000 that is nothing, it is for us ordinary workers in USA
    that is not money. How about what Yoweri Museveni has in Billions!!! No
    body is Talking/Complaining about it.

    What I do remember too is when the Late Obote was a President, he was a
    Nationalist (NON ALLIED NATION). He did not want to involve with the Supper
    Powers allot, so he gained the Hatred which we are crying on despite the
    good things he did for the Nation.

    I can assure you that you do not know how many times some of us have been to
    Washington D.C.or UN, Complaining the way Museveni is treating our people in
    Uganda. I am along those who have been going up and down of those
    Buildings, since President Clinton’s’ time up now. They know me by the
    walks they will tell each other that, The Ugandan Lady is coming again. We
    have never given up and all of us should not give up.

    But because Museveni is their man, nothing will appear on news as you
    might/or exactly had happened. They will put it the way they like, if any.

    That is what happened to Obote, whatever good things he did to our Nation,
    was not appreciated by whoever had no interested.

    I did not want to hurt anybody or any Ugandan for that matter, what I wanted
    is to try and explain some of the few I know about Uganda not foreigners who
    are not interested, and they can write what they like to tell the world.

    About the late Grace Ibingira and the late George Magezi, by then Yoweri
    Museveni was at Ntare S.S. My dear, That was the formation of NRA for
    your information most of them in Ugandan were calling themselves Banyankole.
    more later.

    I love you in the name of Christ and Ugandan.

    Ugandan Citizen.

    NANSIKOMBI JOYCE

  9. My friend Joyce,

    The fact of the matter is Milton Obote will never go away so we have to
    accept that as a fact. People might pillory him, but so many years after he
    left power, he still captures the national imagination. Politicians,
    philosophers and bigots will interpret him in various ways. He made a mark
    as a Ugandan leader, as a patriotic nationalist.
    I am glad you mention this still festering question of $12 billion that
    Musveni and his wife have siphoned and hidden in European banks. The likes
    of Abbey and Corporal Otto don’t want to talk about it. Maybe they are
    secret beneficiaries. Obote on the other hand died as a financial pauper but
    at the same time as a billionaire for the love that his people had and have
    for him for his indomitable determination to serve the wretched of the
    earth.His spirit will live long and be passed on to generations and
    generations of Ugandans to come, He will never be forgotten. This is a fact.

    George O. Pacu-Otto

  10. True George and everytime we get a chance we must show how proud we are to
    have been lead by a true man, a great man, a nationalist
    ISAAC BALAMU
    LONDON

  11. I urge Rev. Jesicca to read the little quote I have below very carefully:
    “…He forced a new constitution through parliament without a reading and
    without the necessary quorum. That constitution abolished the federal powers
    of the kingdoms, most notably the internal autonomy enjoyed by Buganda, and
    concentrated presidential powers in the prime minister’s office. The kabaka
    objected, and Buganda prepared to wage a legal battle. Baganda leaders
    rhetorically demanded that Obote’s “illegal” government remove itself from
    Buganda soil.”
    And also just for reference this one also in the same paragraph.
    “…The new republican 1967 constitution abolished the kingdoms altogether.”

    Goodluck with rewriting history Reverand.

    Bwambuga wa Balongo

  12. Wambuga, some analysts say that the best constitution for Uganda was 1966.
    It only barred Traditional Leaders for seeking presidential positions,
    leveled Buganda kingdom to that of other kingdoms areas, and never touched
    on the autonomy of other 10 districts and mbale Special Territory. But
    because Obote was drunk with power, to borrow from Idi Amin, he moved and
    abolished all forms of federalism, kingdoms and even grabbed autonomy from
    the rest of the districts.
    Ahmed Kateregga

  13. Joice, there were a few Bannabuddu that dined with killers. You may have
    been one of them and you became a fugitive in America. Otherwise whatever
    his short comings, you can’t compare Museveni and NRM to Obote and UPC who
    are responsible for the death of millions of Uganda the majority being
    Baganda. Even Amin is far better than Obote and UPC because he had no mass
    killings, the likes of Luwero and Kampala in early eighties.
    Ahmed Kateregga

  14. Kateregga:

    You have just killed my brother just in September 2009. Was that Obote???
    You are just Agip Cat with you red toque out for nothing.

    Just shut up killers.
    Joicye nansikombi

  15. Joicye, you and your Obote, and NASA operatives and UPC youth wingers killed
    thousands and thousands of our people including my full maternal uncle in
    1980 and my paternal aunt in 1982!
    Ahmed Kateregga
    Newvision Newspaper

  16. Ahmed Kateregga,

    Help us persuade the likes of Tinyefunza that it is good to have an
    INDEPENDENT INQUIRY into the Luwero killings. That way your statement will
    have independent bwino.

    GSK

  17. Mujega , please rtead the Human Rights Commission of Inquiry’s report.
    katerega

  18. Rev Jessica

    I have read so many versions of the 1966 crissis but no one has ever given detailed and well articulated account like yours.

    Banange tubasaba muwandiike ebitabo about this because many of us don’t know.

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