Category Archives: Culture



Some years ago l attempted to compare African Traditional Religion, Judaism, Christianity and Islam, and it can be a good food .

l however left out celibacy, which is featring now prominently. Among the Baganda and and Africans, some priests and priestrasses lived a celibate life just like the ROman Catholic Church and partly by the Greek Orthodox Church


The belief in existence of a god or gods. A system of beliefs in a god or gods that has it’s own ceremonies and traditions according to Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners.


It comes from tradition. Tradition means a very old custom, belief or story. Very old customs, beliefs or stories considered together according to Macmillan English Dictionary. Traditional is relating to or based on very old customs, beliefs or stories.


Relating to Africa or it’s languages or cultures according to Macmillan English Dictionary.

(Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners, International Student Edition, published by Macmillan Publishers Limited 2002. First Published 2002).

African Traditional Religion is the religions system of the Africans before they become exposed or mixed up with other religions notably Judaism, Christianity and Islam. It is still in practice in Tropical or Sub Saharan Africa. It is a belief in God, deities, spirits, fetishes, animals, plants and water bodies according to Rev. John .S. Mbiti, PHD(Canterbury). Formerly, professor of theology and comparative religion Makerere University College, and now Director of the Ecumenical Institute in Swaziland, “Africans are notoriously religions, and such people has its own religious system with a set of beliefs and practices in African”. (African Religions and Philosophy, Published by Heinemann Educational Books Ltd. First Published in 1969).

According to Baganda oral traditions and archeological evidence, the Baganda, a Bantu nation and majority nationality in Uganda, cultivators on the North Western shares of Lake Victoria, believed in the Almighty God whom they called Katonda (meaning Creator) with a shrine at Butonda in Kyaggwe County, now Mukono District. They all called him Dunda (Sheperd), Namugereka (Planner of the Universe, Liisoddene (The All Seer), Sewannaku (The Omnipresent).

According to Dr. Michael Bazzebulala Nsimbi, in his book, Amannya amaganda n’ennono zaago, Katonda, was a God of Peace In neighbouring Bunyoro – Kitara empire including Bunyoro and Ankole Kingdoms, the supreme god, was called Ruhanga which means, the one who put up every thing. And among the Luo in the Northern Uganda, notably Acholi, and Alur, Jepadola in Eastern Uganda, and Jaluo in Nyanza Province, Western Kenya, He was called Lubanga. Lubanga is now one of the gods in Buganda.

However, in the 16th Century, the Kingdom of Buganda under Kabaka (King) Nakibinge, was conquered by the sister twin kingdom of Bunyoro under Omukama (King) Winyi I. Nakibinge was killed in the battle and his body was recovered from a trench after several years. (Bassekabaka b’e Buganda by Sir Apollo Kaggwa and Abateregga, ku Namulondo y’e Buganda by J. S. Kasirye). The Baganda were driven into Lake Victoria and sought refuge in Ssese Islands. From there, they got mercenaries including Lubaale (gods) which helped and drove Banyoro away. (Dr. M. B. Nsimbi, Amannya amaganda n’ennono zaago and Prof. Lwanga Lunyiigo of Eastern Land straggles in Uganda). Among the gods was Kibuuka, the gods of wars, who was tricked by a Munyoro woman, and was killed in a battle at Mbale near Mpigi Town Council in Mawokota County. Ever since, he was worshipped as a national god of war, and he belongs to Ndiga (Sheep clan).

He had a junior brother, god Kyobe. Other gods include Wannema (god of polio), Kawumpuli (god of flue), Mukasa (god of lakes) Kiwanuka (god of thunder), Musoke (god of rain fall) Dungu ( god of hunting, Muwanga (god of hills) and mountains and also the sun, the moon, the stars and the sky.

Instead of worship one Supreme God, Katonda, directly, since the 16th Century, Baganda started worshiping lubaale. Some gods are national cutting across Baganda, and the entire great lakes, region, like Mukasa, who in Ankole, is called Mugasha, and Nakayima, whom the Banyoro and Banyankore call Nyakahuma.

Lubaale are both male and female. Among the males which cut across the region are Kaliisa in Luganda or Kariisa in Runyankitara, who is a god of pastoralists. Nakayima / Nyakahuma is a female one. Nyakahuma has a shrine at Mubende. Some are for provinces or tribes like Kyaggwe, Buddu, Bulemeezi, Singo and Ssese. For example, god Kawumpuli, has a shrine at Buyego in Bulemeezi or Luwero District.

Then there are spirits (emizimu). Those are the living dead, according to Dr. Mbiti, these are ancestors of a family both nucleus and extended, including a lineage or a sub clan. They are believed to always be around the home, to look after their off springs. This is a family affair. Whereas gods have big shrines whether national or provincial/tribal, spirits have small shrines in very homestead. For example, Baganda believe that if a banana leaf breaks down, it is a sign of an ancestor or spirit tipping his/her off spring that he/she is around.

Baganda, just like other Africans, believed in “emisambwa” which are in form of humans, animals, trees and water bodies. They believe that a “musambwa” can be in form of a beautiful woman, or a snake like python, which may not allow a dirty person to go to fetch water from a well. This was for good hygiene and sanitation. The musambwa can be in a form of a leopard, which feeds on goats of its off springs or even the off springs themselves (According to a song, Engo y’ekiggwa by Fred Sebatta of Matendo Promoted Singers).

It can also be a well like Nnalongo Nagadya at Kabowa, on the banks of River Mayanja. These is also a Musambwa of River Katonga which National Resistance Movement Army (NRM/NRA) rebels made a lot of sacrifices during the years 1985/1986 battles along Katonga bridge, on Kampala Masaka high Way, with government forces. They were passing through oracle. Nnaalongo Nakazaana, who has just passed away as Deputy Resistant District Commissioner (RDC) Mubende District.

Misambwa are also male and female. One of the males is Walumbe (compared to Angel of Death in Judaism, Christianity and Islam) or Ssaalongo Kinenebatenda. He has caved at Tanda near Mityana along Kampala-Mubende High Way. These were said to be trenches during the battles between Walumbe and his brother Kayikuuzi in a story of creation which is almost similar to that of the Bible and the Qur’an. Among the female ones is Nnaalongo Nabinene at Kabowa on the banks of River Mayanja.

Baganda believe that water bodies are born by human beings. For example, they believe that River Mayanja was born as a set of twins with the main river as Waswa (Senior) and its tributary as Kato (Junior) (Abateregga ku Namulondo y’e Buganda by J.S. Kasirye.

Most of water bodies names are female for example, Lake Victoria, is called Nalubaale (Lake of gods) among the Baganda and Basoga. The Misambwe are very similar to Arab and Swahilli Jiins of the Middle East, Indian Ocean and East African Coast. Muslims believe that Jiins are God’s creation which was created, like human beings to worship God (The Holy Quran).

Here even totems for clans among the Baganda, and other people of the great lakes religion, can be regarded as a form of Animism, another names for African Traditional Religion, of worshiping animals, plants, and other creatures.

Every clan has a totem which is its traditional symbol like the Uganda national court of arms, which is made up of a crested cane and an antelope, among others. According to Dr. Nsimbi, clan’s totems were, initially, taboos for their ancestors until they were revered. Buganda now has 56 totemic clans. These are birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, fish and plants. Among them are Ngabi (Antelope), Mpologoma (Lion), Ngo (Leopard), Nkima (Monkey). Nsimbi urges that this was for environment and wildlife protection.

Baganda also believe in Mayembe (Fetishes) According to Macmillan English Dictionary a fetish is “an object believed to be magic or holy and worshiped by people”. The fetishes are put in hones of wild animals like buffalo, antelopes, hippos e.t.c. The fetishes are “askaris” or enforcers of the will of lubaale (gods). They treat sick people but they are also hired to bewitch others and even strangle them.

Like lubaale, emisambwa and emizimu, mayembe also have shrines and some are regional, national provincial/tribal or clan. But they can be bought and sold off. They can also speak through oracles. But can also speak directly in darkness. However, this is subject to abuse as traditional healers under Uganda n’eddagala lyaayo failed to make fetishes speak in light at Constitutional Square as demanded by Rev. Fr. Bro. Anatoli Waswa, of Bannakarooli Brothers, a healer himself. Among the fetishes are Lubowa and Lukindu which are male, and Nambaga, Nalubowa and Nanseko, which are female. The last trio is for not only fertility but also delivery and infancy.

The others important feature in African Traditional Religion is the mediums or oracles (Abalubaale) on whom, the others communicate. These can be compared to Biblical and Qur’anic prophets or fore fellers. There are both male and female. They are used to fore tell bad and good events, but are subject to abuse, and many give false prophecies. These are the custodians of the shrines, they are medicine men/women, and they are the kabona (priests) of the African Traditional Religion.

On places of worship, just as Jews have synagogues and a Temple, Christians have Churches and Muslims have mosques, African traditionalists have shrines. Some are regional like Nakayima’s at Mubende, some are national like Katonda’s at Butonda, and some are for tribes, clan and families. Just as shoes are removed while one is entering a synagogue or a mosque, it is the same with shrines. Even women in menstruation period, and couples are not allowed to enter before bathe (Cleaning Janabbah off if Muslims). This is for cleanliness both spiritual and physical.

When it comes to offering to god, even traditionalists do so in form of goats, cows, sheep, chicken etc. Among the Baganda, lubaale Mukasa is offered a white goat, ejjembe Kiwanuka is offered a brown sheep, these are not only for slaughter but also for raring.

On pilgrimage, as Jews make a pilgrimage to Jerusalem and Christians to Holy Land, and Muslims to Holy cities of Mecca Medina and Jerusalem, African traditionalists also have their own holy places for pilgrimage. Basoga visit Bujagali falls near the source of River Nile, Baganda, Banyoro and Banyankore visit Nakayima in Mubende. Abandawula culture makes periodical pilgrimage at Buwaali. Many tribes and clans have their ancestral and spiritual places they visit at specific periods.

These are also rituals like initiation ceremonies. Among the Jews, it is circumcision on the 7th day of a baby boy. Among the Christians, it is baptism and among the Muslims, it is circumcision of a baby boy. Some Africans also practice circumcision both male and female, although female genital mutilation is abandoned as inhuman. In Uganda only Sabiny tribe in Sebei Sub Region, eastern Uganda still practices it. The Bamasaba and Sabiny tribes on Mount Elgon and Bakonjo and Bamba tribes on Rwenzori Mountains of the Moon on Uganda/ Congo boarder practice male circumcision.Howver World Health Organisation has recommended for circumcision of all males for hygienic and medical purposes but there is no political will among some African countries like Uganda to support the move.

Most tribes in Kenya, North Africa, the Sudan’s belt and West Africa practice male circumcision. Some still practice female genital mutilation. Among the Baganda, the initiation ceremony is called “Okwalula abaana (initiating the children into the family or clan) or okuzina abalongo (a special initiation ceremony for twins)”

The other important feature is the story of creation. As Jews, Christians and Muslims, believe that God created Adam and Eve who produced all human beings on planet Earth, African traditionalists also believe that God created the fathers and mothers of their tribes and nations. For example, Baganda believe that the first man on earth or first Muganda was Kintu who was poor and had one cow on whose dung and whose urine he fed until he married Nambi the daughter of Gulu, the god of sky. Nambi made a mistake of retrning home contrary to Gulu’s order and she came with her brother Walumbe (Death) who started killing Kintu and Nambi’s children until another brother Kayikuzi, came to confer Walumbe’s antics the battle was at Tanda near Mityana Highway along Kampala-Mubende High Way. (Dr. Nsimbi in Amannya Amaganda n’ennono zaago)

The Bamasaba, Basoga, Banyoro and Banyankole also have a story of Kintu, although slightly different from that of Baganda. The Banyoro and Banyankore, for example, believe that Kintu was the first man on earth or in Kitara region and had three sons, Kairu (cultivator) Kahima (pastoralist) and Kakama (ruler) who are the ancestors of all cultivators, pastoralists and rulers respectively. The Kikuya also had a story of Gikuyu and Mumbi as the father and mother of the tribe respectively. (Prof. Ngugo wa Thiongo in the River Between).

However, the creation stories are attributed to the end of first millennium and beginning of the second millennium and are therefore inaccurate. Even that of Biblical, Adam which is said to have happened over 6,000 years ago, is contested as man has been on the East African Plateau two hundred thousand years ago, according to archeological discoveries. The Pygmies were here before the formation of Lake Victoria and the East African Rift Valley, according to archeological evidence. The oldest fossils were found in Ethiopia, Olduvai George in Tanzania, Nsongezi on River Kagera in Uganda and also in South Africa (East Africa Through A Thousand Years by S. Were and Wilson 1982).

Like Jews, Christians and Muslims, Africans also believed in life after death. Although they were not specific on Haven and whether physical or spiritual, ancient Egyptians and Nubians believed in life after death. They built Pyramids for their pharaohs (kings) where they buried them with their wives, servants, dogs, food, cooking utensils etc… so that they use them in life after death. Africans’ belief in emizimu (spirits) as living deads, is a sign of believing in life after death. In fact, the Luganda word “okufa” (death) is derived from “okufuuka ” (to change).

But like Judaism, and unlike Christianity and Islam, ATR is not missionary. It is hereditary although a person can be integrated in a clan or tribe and a foreign god and practice can be integrated.

Unlike Jews who have the Old Testament, Christians who have the Gospel and Muslims the Quran, ATR has no standard written holly book. Although the art of writing was discovered by early Egyptians along the Nile valley, Sub Saharan Africans remained illiterate until the second half of the 19th century. However, all dos and don’ts of ATR are kept in unwritten holly books in form of oral traditions from one generation to another according to Mbiti, ATR is a practicing religion (Chapter one, introduction). This is like the British oldest parliamentary democracy but with an unwritten constitution.

Like Christians and Muslims have rosaries, ATR also have cowrie shells, coffee beans, coconuts and beads. But the cowries and beads are used more in fore telling by oracles other than worshiping.

Again, as the Jews observe the Sabbath, the Christians observe Sunday, and Muslims observe Juma or Friday as holidays, Baganda observe the night of the New Moon as a day of peace and resting (olunaku lw’obwerende (according to Dr.M.B.Nsimbi in Tuyige Oluganda, a Luganda language pamphlet for secondary students). This was observed every lunar month. They also revere Wednesday, which they attribute to god Mukasa, as a resting day for gods and most shrines are closed on the day.

Unfortunately, ATR was invaded by Judaism, Christianity and Islam which were superior in all forms. The Bible and the Quran talk about Moses, a Jewish prophet who was attacking Egyptian pharaoh for practicing ATR. According to Moses, the African religion was polytheism.

Church history also shows the early church in North Africa especially Egypt, Nubia and Ethiopia. All those abandoned ATR and embraced Christianity. When Christianity was declared by Emperor Constantine as a state religion in the 4th century A.D., the whole of North Africa, which was under Roman Empire, became Christian, at least in name until it was conquered by Muslims and became Arab. Likewise, East African Coast, and much of West African was also Muslimised. The remaining part in the heart of Africa, was rounded up during the time of slave trade (by Arabs in Eastern Africa) and Europeans in Western and Southern Africa) between 1490 and 1900, and ATR was condemned as a pagan religion.

However, according to Prof. Ali Mazcui (in a clash or civilization, a British Broadcast Corporation’s documentary that was also shown on UTV now UBC TV and WBC, Africans practice two religions; privately she/he practices ATR and publicly Islam or Christianity.

This was exhibited during the five years bush war in Luweero triangle from 1981 to 1986, where even President Yoweri Museveni confessed that his fighters practiced the two. In the state of Benin, West Africa, ATR (Vudu) was declared a state religion, by then president Soglo and many African immigrants in west especially Nigerians practice it in Europe and America.

Traditions have it that before a Catholic is ordained a priest; he is first ordered to ensure that his ancestral background will not disturb him during priesthood. It is also claimed that whenever a Muslim is to perform pilgrimage, he is also ordered to ensure that he does the same so that s/he is not disturbed during pilgrimage. That is a partial recognition of ATR’s power.


ATR is represented at the African Council of Religions AND IS RECOGNIZED BY World Council of Religions, under United Nations, but it is yet to be represented at Uganda Inter Religious Council (made up of Roman Catholics, Anglicans, Greek Orthodox, Muslims and Seventh Day Adventists), neither is it represented to lead prayers on national days and occasions as it is the case with Islam and Christianity. As Dr. Mbiti says, ATR made exchanges with other Middle Eastern religions like Judaism, Christianity and Islam, and therefore contributed to their civilization. It should not just be condemned by Crusaders and Mujahideen as a mere pagan religion.

Kateregga Musaazi Ahmed is a post graduate student of Arts-Religion, Peace and Conflict Resolution , Islamic University In Uganda.


EKISAAKAAT​E January 2012 program unveiled for those interested


From the Office of:
Juliet K. SsentezaPrivate SecretaryOffice of the NnabagerekaBuganda Kingdom
P.O.Box 58, Kampala

On behalf of the Patron/Founder of the Ekisaakaate (Children’s Holiday Camp), HRH Nnabagereka Sylvia Nagginda Luswata, I would like to introduce to you to Ekisaakaate, a two week annual programme, aiming at nurturing young girls boys, aged 6 to 18 with different cultural and social background, into “holistic” and verstail individuals who appreciate both traditional and modern values.

The ‘Ekisaakaate’ programme is commended for supporting character formation and personality development which is not adequately catered for in the mainstream education system as school teachers put more emphasis on academics.

I am happy to inform you that the next Ekisaakaate will run from 2nd to 15th January 2012 at St. Mary’s Secondary School Kitende, Wakiso (off Entebbe Road) and the theme is “Culture is Critical to Development” (Obuwangwa bwa Nkizo mu Nkulaakulana).

Registration of participants has started, on a first come first serve basis, at the Office of the Nnabagereka, Bulange Mengo; Café Ballet, Plot 34 C Kyadondo Road, Nakasero; and St Mary’s Boarding Senior Secondary School, Kitende.

The participation fee is Shs.200,000/=. For any further information please feel free to contact The Office of the Nnabagereka, 0715 561606 or 0715256461.

Kindly send it to your friend (s) in support of the Nnabagereka’s noble cause towards a new holistic and upright generation. Thank you. Juliet K. SsentezaPrivate SecretaryOffice of the Nabagereka

Museveni did not read history lessons properly


Eric Kashambuzi

Museveni claims to have studied history. It is not clear which branch of history he studied. Did he study revolutionary; military; diplomatic; colonial; negotiations; medieval; modern or all the branches of history? Whichever branch he studied, Museveni’s behavior demonstrates that he learned wrong lessons and that is why he has ended up described as a dictator presiding over a failed state.

Museveni believes very strongly that when you are militarily strong and you are feared (that is why he wears military uniform when there is a domestic challenge), then you can crush all your enemies (Museveni sees dissent in enemy, not opponent terms) with impunity. That is why he devoted his early life undergoing military training. As president, his number one priority has been building strong security forces to intimidate and when necessary crush political dissent. The defense budget has therefore been disproportionately larger than any other sector. Consequently infrastructural, social and environmental sectors have been starved of resources and are on the verge of collapse (potholes in Kampala City are an obvious case) – an outcome that may end his presidency.

History shows that military strength alone is not enough to defeat a determined people. The Portuguese government refused to negotiate with African liberation forces believing that military victory was the only choice. In the end the government itself was overthrown and Portugal defeated and all Portuguese fled their former African colonies in utter humiliation. On the other hand, visionary de Clerk, prime minister of apartheid South Africa, read the signs correctly and concluded that military victory was impossible. He entered into genuine negotiations with Nelson Mandela and a win-win agreement was struck (unlike the fake Okello/Museveni Nairobi negotiations). White South Africans who chose to stay have accepted Africans as equals and not creatures to slave for the Master Race.

If Museveni does not draw a lesson from the experience of Mandela and de Clerk that military strength has drawbacks and begins to negotiate with opponents or to give them space to participate in the political processes as equals, there are going to be serious problems. Instead, Museveni is still investing in weapons of human destruction (WHD) rather than creating conditions for dialogue with all stake holders.

Museveni believes that once you have solid foreign support, you cannot be defeated at home. Accordingly, in trying to get Britain’s support, Museveni accepted a harsh version of structural adjustment (shock therapy) because it was favored by conservative western leaders particularly Margaret Thatcher of the United Kingdom. Museveni collaborated closely with Linda Chalker a trusted minister who preached Thatcher’s philosophy of economic liberalism including monetary economics focusing on inflation control (at the expense of employment) and privatization of public enterprises. Museveni embraced similar policies in the economic reform programs since 1987.

Regarding privatization, Uganda’s public assets were divested en masse without proper assessment of their value, which ones to be privatized, to be closed or to be retained because they were making profit or serve strategic national interests. Divestment began immediately a decision was taken with instructions that any problems should be addressed as they arise rather than delay divestments until all constraints had been studied and resolved. The assets were sold at throw away prices (we have never been informed how much revenue was raised and to what use it was put). Because there were no Ugandans with capital and skills to participate in the exercise, most Uganda assets are foreign-owned – severely undermining Uganda’s sovereignty. The few that were allocated to Ugandans connected with the first family have performed badly and are always applying for government bailout to avoid bankruptcy – the very reason privatization triumphed over nationalization.

Also, because Museveni needed continued Britain’s support (British media and financial interests supported his guerrilla war), he agreed to the return of all Asians if they wished to and repossession of their properties including possibly those that had been compensated. This decision was and still is very unpopular and contentious in Uganda.

While taking these unpopular decisions to please foreign powers, Museveni has failed to draw the right lessons from the experiences of Haile Selassie of Ethiopia and Mobutu Sese Seko of Zaire/DRC. These two African leaders had solid support of western powers. Nobody would have thought that they would be abandoned for any reason. However, when the west realized that the two leaders had become very unpopular in their respective countries it chose the people over the leaders. Haile SeIassie was in the end judged by western powers as a flawed leader with an autocratic style of leadership and abandoned. Similarly Mobutu was judged kleptocratic leader and advised to step down. When he refused, he was thrown out by Kagame and Museveni troops. The same thing could happen to Museveni if he continues along the current unpopular trajectory.

Museveni has not yet drawn a lesson about the power of images (photographs) in eroding the credibility of leaders. During the 1973/74 devastating famine in Ethiopia, the world watched images of starving women and children while Ethiopia was exporting food to earn foreign currency to cater to the needs of the rich, and Haile Selaisse was photographed feeding large chunks of beef to his lions in the palace compound. Without question, these images enhanced the Emperor’s removal from power.

The images of starving mothers and children when Uganda is exporting huge amounts of food to neighboring countries and beyond to earn foreign currency to satisfy the needs of the rich; pictures of Ugandans disfigured by jiggers because of absolute poverty; pictures of Kampala under floods because drainage channels have been blocked by unplanned buildings; pictures of overturned vehicles and dead passengers because of poor road maintenance and images of Museveni boarding an $80 million presidential jet in a third world, least developed and landlocked country that depends on foreign aid for survival have sent wrong messages about Museveni’s leadership and priority setting. Yet Museveni and his media staff continue to deny the adverse impact they are having on him.

Museveni believes that once you have crushed opposition parties and you have a firm control of your party then everything else will flow as planned. In this regard, Museveni has not learned from Margaret Thatcher’s experience. Thatcher believed that she had a comfortable handle on her conservative party and could initiate unpopular programs (e.g. poll tax) with impunity. She got a shock when members of her party forced her to step down through party elections.

Similarly, Museveni got a shock when disgruntled party members announced that because primary elections for 2011 general elections had been rigged, they were contesting as independent candidates. He advised them to drop the idea for party unity to no avail. If business continues as usual, Museveni could, one day, be forced to step down. It is possible because Ugandans are changing!

Museveni has not learned that ignoring or exploiting peasants can be politically costly. Peasants’ revolts contributed a major part in the collapse of feudalism in Europe. French peasants played a crucial role in the French Revolution. Uganda peasants are unhappy with Museveni policies. They see their children drop out of school in large part because government has refused to provide lunches and see their youth unemployed when youth from Museveni ethnic group with whom they studied are driving new vehicles. Independent candidates from Museveni’s party have seen this loophole and hope to exploit it and defeat Museveni’s preferred candidates. Thus, Uganda peasants, like peasants everywhere, can get cranky and cause trouble for Museveni when they feel their rights have been trampled too much.

Finally, Museveni did not draw a lesson regarding the impact of enlightenment thinkers on the American and French revolutions. European thinkers rejected divine right of kings and the dogma that some people were born to rule and others to slave in perpetuity. Museveni still believes in the divine right of presidents to give orders that must be followed at face value – without raising a finger in protest or to seek clarification. Museveni still believes that Bahororo are born natural leaders and will rule Uganda for ever possibly as a hereditary monarchy in spite of disastrous effects of his policies on the economy, ecology and society since 1986.

Museveni and his close tribal advisers still entertain the notion that any potential opponent should be liquidated. Museveni and those advising him need to understand that any person or relative murdered for his/her political views can only hasten his downfall. Uganda has entered the enlightenment phase and Ugandans have the right to reason and to ask questions and demand convincing answers – not to be dismissed as bankrupt, liars or empty and noisy tins!

Ugandans in urban and increasingly rural areas know their inalienable rights and no one can take them away without adverse consequences. The issue of land has demonstrated that even the illiterate cannot be swindled without nasty outcomes. If Uganda land is sold to foreign states or companies to grow food for their people while Ugandans starve, you can be sure Uganda peasants and urban elite will rebel (the case of Mabira forest is still fresh in our minds). As in European peasants’ revolts all that is needed is one or two bold leaders like Tyler to get the revolt rolling.

Generally, Ugandans are peace loving people who want to raise their families in peace and security and in harmony with their neighbors. Sadly, Uganda has had bad leaders who believe in the use of force rather than negotiations on a win-win basis. Impoverishing and humiliating opponents by depriving them of their property, culture (while Museveni is proud of his culture he is at the same time destroying the culture of others) and dignity by using military, intelligence and economic tools can only aggravate anger and speed up mobilization for resistance. Museveni expressed anger at Obote by waging a nasty guerrilla war on Buganda soil far away from his own. What makes Museveni think that others cannot react before they are completely destroyed? The armed forces he is proud of could turn against him especially by junior officers who have not enjoyed like the generals. Haile Selassie was picked up from his palace by junior officers he had dumped in a remote battalion in southern Ethiopia (we still remember Master Sergeant Samuel Doe of Liberia). Ugandans need not resort to force because there are better alternatives if all parties are ready to take that path. Let us hope that common sense and interest of present and future generations will prevail over Museveni’s personal and tribal interests.

Eric Kashambuzi

UAH forumist in NewYork

Museveni is turning Uganda into Bahororo dynasty


Museveni is a big dreamer and strategist. He has plans for Bahororo dynasty in Uganda as an integral part of Tutsi Empire in the Great Lakes Region. He is using a combination of military, political, economic and diplomatic weapons to realize his dreams. Ugandans should listen and watch carefully when Museveni talks or acts. He has a subtle way of sending messages. This article will focus on plans for declaring Bahororo dynasty in Uganda. For easy reference, let us review the history of former Mpororo kingdom as background information to Bahororo dynasty.

A group of Batutsi from Rwanda under the leadership of Kahaya Rutindangyenzi of Bashambo ruling clan founded Mpororo Kingdom around mid-1600s. The kingdom lasted less than 100 years because of serious internal problems. Although the exact boundaries are not known, it stretched from northern Rwanda to southwest Uganda largely in present-day Ntungamo district. When the kingdom disintegrated the portion in southwest Uganda was taken over by Bahima under Bahinda ruling clan. Bahororo who had been rulers over Bairu (slaves or commoners) became commoners themselves under Bahima kings.

Many Bahororo who were dissatisfied returned to Rwanda, others stayed (and chose to call themselves Bahima to avoid being classified and (mis)treated as commoners) or moved somewhere else. Ninety years or so after the kingdom had disintegrated a group of Bahororo under the leadership of Rwebiraro of Bashambo clan sought refuge in Rujumbura around 1800 and settled at Nyakinengo. Therefore Rujumbura was not a part of Mpororo kingdom.

Although Bahororo lost their kingdom and the name ‘Mpororo’ disappeared from maps of what later became Uganda, Bahororo tenaciously clung together (by marrying among themselves) wherever they lived – in Rwanda, Rujumbura, Ankole, Buganda or elsewhere and kept alive the dream of restoring Mpororo kingdom.

During negotiations for Uganda independence, Bahororo in Ankole demanded a separate district. They did not succeed but the idea did not die. Museveni who is a Muhororo was old enough and witnessed how Bahima of Ankole denied Bahororo a separate district (there are rumors – to be confirmed – that Ankole kingdom was not restored because of the unresolved Mpororo kingdom question).

Museveni has set himself the gigantic task of restoring and expanding Mpororo from southwest Uganda to the entire country. He is using inter alia the following methods in calculated and subtle manner.

First, Museveni has patiently with the help of historians and other professionals identified all Bahororo and their Bahima (including Oyima in Lango), Batutsi and Banyamulenge cousins in Uganda and beyond. Because they use different Uganda names and speak different Uganda languages, it is difficult to detect them. Museveni has therefore placed them in strategic positions in the army, police and intelligence, strategic ministries especially of finance and foreign affairs and in business. The oil sector is already in Museveni’s pocket. That is why it has become critically important to know who is who in Uganda to avoid the country being ‘high jacked’.

Second, by pushing economic integration and free mobility of East Africans, Museveni has made it relatively easy for Batutsi from Rwanda, Burundi and DRC to filter into Uganda to boost Bahororo numbers. For this reason Museveni favors a liberal immigration policy. That is why you see so many buses from Burundi and Rwanda ferrying Batutsi into Uganda. With poor records it is difficult to know how many of these Batutsi are staying in Uganda permanently. Should East African political federation become a reality, Uganda will be flooded with Batutsi and Banyamulenge who will occupy Uganda land and throw out indigenous owners – it is reported to be happening in Ntungamo district already.

The 1995 Uganda constitution that allows free mobility and settlement anywhere in the country was designed largely for this purpose but Ugandans did not and still do not understand this trick. Using immigration statistics, it would be possible to determine how many Batutsi and Banyamulenge have entered Uganda and how many have left. However, records on migration, births, deaths and marriages etc that would provide the information on migration have been stolen although those who stole them are known but have not yet been apprehended! That is why Ugandans must demand the return of those files intact.

Third, under normal circumstances, when refugees are given asylum they are kept and supported in camps until conditions improve in their home countries and they go back. In Uganda since 1959 when Batutsi refugees and their cattle entered Uganda, refugees are settled and by default (or with some help) many of them have become Uganda citizens. The Tutsi refugees were allowed to stay with relatives or move to other places where they were helped to acquire land. If you add on migrant workers you understand how Buganda ended up with 40 percent of Banyarwanda at the time of independence.

These haphazard settlements explain in large part problems in Sembabule, Rakai and Mawokota, Bunyoro and Ntungamo etc. In Kabale where the population density is high, accommodating Batutsi refugees since 1959 resulted in Bakiga being pushed out to other areas of Uganda. Thus, some people who pose as Bakiga from Kabale are actually Batutsi. Museveni knows them well and has used them effectively. The United Nations High Commissioner for refugees (UNHCR) that has responsibility for their wellbeing should provide information on all refugees in Uganda since 1959 to see how many have returned to their countries. This information would also be used to avoid future conflicts with indigenous people especially as political problems in the Horn of Africa, Kenya and DRC have pushed Somalis, Kenyans and Congolese into Uganda.

Fourth, wealthy or educated non-Bahororo, non-Batutsi and non-Bahima men are being encouraged – sometimes without them knowing it – to marry women from Bahororo and their cousins. Usually these are women from lower social classes (women from higher or royal classes marry men in their Nilotic ethnic group and would not be allowed to marry outside of that circle even if they wanted to). Once you marry into Bahororo family you become a Muhororo or you are ‘Tutsified’ and you join that culture and abandon your ancestral relatives. Therefore these are basically political marriages designed to weaken non-Bahororo Ugandans. There is a rumor (subject to confirmation) that Bashambo women have formed a club called Bashambokazi Kumanyana (to know one another) and one of the principal objectives is to marry Bahororo women to non-Bahororo wealthy and/or educated men.

Fifth, Museveni has made sure that children of Bahororo and their cousins get superb education at home and/or abroad while Uganda children languish in public schools that have been starved of funds and cannot even serve lunch to hungry children who are dropping out of school. Museveni has resisted suggestions to provide kids with lunch. Now you can understand why. This is not a matter that requires a study (as Museveni has directed) by the World Bank which is not entirely in favor of school lunches. The educated Bahororo in time will occupy all important positions in all areas of human endeavor and control semi-illiterate and unemployable Ugandans. Museveni is also not keen to provide relief to unemployed youth through public works initially as other governments have done because that is part of the plan – to marginalize and reduce them to politically and economically voicelessness and powerlessness.

Sixth, Museveni has accommodated foreigners by privatizing public assets (and increasingly allocating them land) and giving them freedom to make as much money as they are able to (including by underpaying Uganda workers through labor flexibility) in return for supporting him to stay in power as long as he wants. Museveni’s chosen successor would continue cozy relations with foreigners to consolidate Bahororo dynasty.

Seventh, Museveni who controls the judiciary and executive branches now wants the legislative branch of government as well. With three branches in his pocket the game will be over. For 2011 elections NRM flag bearers were carefully selected and that is why the NRM primaries were chaotic. The preferred candidates defeated those that do not fit Museveni’s scheme of capturing and controlling parliament. With at least two-thirds majority of solid supporters in parliament, Museveni will engineer revolutionary constitutional changes that may shock Ugandans.

If Ugandans have noticed, many groups are now demanding cultural leaders. The idea of cultural leaders is in the 1995 constitution. They could not use kings because that would have been too obvious. What is interesting is that groups are increasingly demanding and installing not cultural heads but kings. Have Ugandans noticed the shift from cultural leaders to kings? As more and more groups demand kings and kingdoms, Museveni may use this opportunity and argue that since the overwhelming groups want kings we might as well declare Uganda a kingdom. With at least two-thirds in parliament fully behind Museveni, Uganda could easily be declared a kingdom with Museveni as the first king. When this happens, it will be too late to change because Museveni will be in control of security forces, all branches of government and the business community. Since the decision will have been taken democratically, there is nothing the international community can do. Do not dismiss this observation out of hand. It is possible to declare Uganda a hereditary kingdom, entrenching Bahororo dynasty. The only chance Ugandans have is to defeat NRM in 2011. This matter should be taken seriously so that no one complains afterwards that if they had known they would have voted differently. Now you know!

Eric Kashambuzi

Working with UN in New York

Why Nilotic Bahororo and their cousins don’t marry Bantu women


Eric Kashambuzi

In the article on “Who are Bahororo?” it was mentioned that men do not marry Bantu women. Some readers have asked me to elaborate in order to understand why they don’t. Although Bahororo (Batutsi from Rwanda), Bahima and Batutsi cousins speak Bantu language, they are ethnically different from Bantu people, hence the use of Nilotic Bahororo and their cousins in the heading. At one time it was erroneously believed that Bahororo and their cousins were white people, but scientific studies have demonstrated conclusively and definitively that they are black people and darker with thicker lips than Bantu people – no disrespect is intended (J. D. Fage A History of Africa 1995 & Jean Hiernaux The People of Africa 1975). Although Bahororo and their cousins do not marry Bantu (Bairu and Bahutu) women they use them frequently for sexual pleasure and even produce children together. More references will be provided for those who would like to read more on the subject. Many quotations will also be used to avoid misinterpretation of authors’ messages.

According to John Hanning Speke (The Discovery of the Source of the Nile 1863, 2006) Bairu people (slaves) theoretically refers to all Bantu people south of the Nile. However, because of extensive intermarriage between Nilotic and Bantu people in Bunyoro, Buganda and Toro, entirely new communities were created and the ethnic distinction disappeared. This article will therefore refer to Bahororo, Bahima and Batutsi of southwest Uganda (Ankole and Rujumbura) and Rwanda and Burundi where Nilotic men do not marry Bahutu and Bairu women. It is important to add at this juncture that when wealthy and/or educated Bairu and Bahutu men marry Bahororo, Bahima and Batutsi women, they marry them mostly from relatively poor families. Thus, Bahororo, Bahima and Batutsi women from wealthy or royal families do not marry Bairu or Bahutu men reminiscent of medieval Europe where the nobility married among itself (John Merriman A History of Modern Europe 1996).

Although Bahororo and their cousins argue that they do not marry Bairu and Bahutu women because they are not pretty, historians and anthropologists and other commentators have given a different reason. One of them states that “… the Hima and Tutsi of the southwestern highland zone [southwest Uganda, Burundi and Rwanda] did not mix so freely. They avoided intermarriage and by keeping themselves distinct they managed, in time, to establish a position of domination over the majority peasants [Bairu and Bahutu] cultivators of the region” (Kevin Shillington History of Africa1989).

Another historian has written that “It was the political domination [of agriculturalists or Bairu and Bahutu] by the pastoralists [Bahororo and their cousins] that brought the two groups [pastoralists and agriculturalists] to live together” (Bethwell A. Ogot Economic and Social History of East Africa 1979). Thus they have avoided marrying Bairu and Bahutu women to keep their secrets about dominating Bahutu and Bairu people and other people in the great lakes region. Conversely, one can argue that Bahororo, Bahima and Batutsi women marry wealthy and/or educated Bairu and Bahutu men largely for political reasons – to get access to Bairu and Bahutu secrets about liberating themselves from Bahororo, Bahima and Batutsi domination.

Here is more information. According to Kinyarwanda law or culture “The punishment for rape depended on the social status of the person involved. Thus if a Hutu raped a Tutsi woman, he was put to death; if a Hutu woman was raped by a Tutsi, the matter would be settled by compensation” (James L. Gibbs Peoples of Africa 1965).

Regarding marriage and ownership of children, “The legality of a marriage depended on the handing over of a bride price by the groom’s father to the bride’s father. The mere performance of the marriage rites did not constitute a legal union. The transfer of bride wealth caused the husband … to acquire an exclusive right on his wife’s reproductive power so as to make him stand out as the legal father (pater) of all children born to the woman, either begotten by himself or by another man” ( James L. Gibbs Peoples of Africa 1965).

Another Kinyarwanda or more specifically Tutsi culture is that a woman is expected to remain virgin until she marries. Therefore “unmarried Tutsi boys would be ‘given’ Hutu girls, temporarily, for sexual purposes”. As noted above “Intermarriage occurred, but usually with successful Hutu men marrying Tutsi women. Tutsi men would take Hutu women as concubines, rather than marrying them” (Neil J. Kressel Mass Hate 2002).

In Ankole although intermarriage was prohibited, “Bairu concubines were especially common among Bahima chiefs and gave rise to a class of half-castes known as Abambari. From the point of view of legal status, the Abambari were classed as Bairu, but personal consideration often modified the strict rigor of the rule” (Ramkrishna Murkherjee Uganda: An Historical Accident? Class, Nation, State Formation 1985).

The analysis above has demonstrated clearly that contrary to popular belief, Bairu and Bahutu women are not ugly otherwise Bahororo, Batutsi and Bahima men including the chiefs (with unlimited access to Bahima, Bahororo and Batutsi women) would not have had sex with them frequently. It means they enjoyed their company and possibly still do! In other words, they do so because in their eyes Bairu and Bahutu women are pretty and that is why Bahororo, Batutsi and Bahima men had sex with them frequently. Those in doubt including Kesaasi take another close look (free of bias) and you will not fail to admire the beauty of Bairu and Bahutu women. Bahororo, Bahima and Batutsi men do not marry Bairu and Bahutu women not because they are ugly but if they married them their secrets about dominating other people in Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi or elsewhere would be exposed.

As we progress into the 21st century, let us hope that the premise of domination that has prevented Bahima, Bahororo and Batutsi from marrying outside their Nilotic ethnic group will become a thing of the past – and pretty soon. The world will be watching.

Eric Kashambuzi

UAH forumist in New York

How Much has been done on the 350 sq miles of Buganda land so far?


The Kabaka holds the land in trust
Publication date: Monday, 9th June, 2008
Letter of the day

EDITOR—I wish to add some value to Pereza Ahabwe’s article published on May 29. In the article, Ahabwe stated that the land Bill attempts to protect the ordinary people. I fully support his view.

However, I wish to correct one mistake which many people make believing that the 350 sq miles of Buganda land was given to the Kabaka as his personal property.

The fact is when the 1900 Buganda Agreement was made, several parcels of land were allotted to the kabaka, katikiro Omulamuzi saza and gombolola chiefs as official mailo estates.

The kabaka was to hold the land in trust for the baganda with a restriction not to transfer or sell the land under his trust but to collect busulu and envujjo for his welfare.

This explains why all the sekabakas, including Sir Edward Mutesa never sold, transferred or converted official mailo estates into their own names as personal property.

If this had been allowed to do so, the current Kabaka, Ronald Muwenda Mutebi would have found nothing left! Article 246(3)(a) of the Constitution of Uganda 1995, imposed on a traditional leader a duty to hold assets or property like official mailo estates in trust for the baganda so that the Kabaka became a mere trustee while the Baganda are the beneficiaries of the 350 sq miles. It is also quite clear that when the Government decided to give 350 sq miles to the kabaka under Article 118(4) of the Constitution (Amendment) Statute, 1993(Statute No 7 of 1993) the kabaka was to hold the 350 square miles as a trustee for the baganda, the beneficiaries not in his personal capacity as private property.

It appears kabaka Mutebi considers himself as the last Kabaka and is busy winding up the kabakaship! This is a very serious matter which Mengo has created as it goes down to the root of the kingdom. I strongly contend that the formation of a private company, Rexba Ltd, whose shareholders/members are a selected few individuals from the Mengo establishment to which company the Kabaka as a trustee transferred the kabakas’ official mailo estates without the consent of baganda through an elected Lukiiko, will soon or later cause a constitutional crisis. Baganda like dan Mulika will challenge the Kabaka the transfer of this land to Rexba where Mutebi holds 99% shares and his son Jjunju hold 1% in a Constitutional Court. The Kabaka as a trustee has no legal power to transfer trust property to himself as an individual. The law of tracing will in future catch up with him.

Kulumba Kiingi
This article can be found on-line at:

Museveni is no better than Iddil Amin or Obote


Dear Ugandans,

Ugandan leaders have all been the same with minor differences. If you trace carefully and critically, Yoweri Kaguta Museveni( YKM) is no different from Iddil Amin Dada and all the other past leaders he always despises. I expect the usual suspects to argue that YKM is miles ahead of the ruling class. Wapi. They have been a bunch of mediocre who failed to create long lasting stability in Uganda. Uganda today is no more stable than it was at the time of independence. Kingdoms were abolished but what did it achieve? Some could argue that it gave Uganda YKM.

Idil Amin was president of Uanda( 1971-79)

See how his admirers measure transformation; YKM is supposed to be better because UPDF is more people friendly. Or he has allowed this or that or that people can at least sleep.

But if Ugandans were to be honest there is no social, political, economic transformation in Uganda. The people are again worried about the future. As The late Jaramogi Oginga Odinga famously wrote” it is not yet Uhuru” in Uganda. I dare anyone in Ugandans At HEART (UAH) to come forward and make the case that Uganda has undergone positive transformation since independence.

The national education system ended with Amin. Up to 1979, it did not matter much where one went to school. They had a fare shot at success. Things went downhill since then.

All past leaders and YKM shine from time to time in the eyes of their admirers because those who came after/before them set the bar so low. Look at YKM on corruption; it would be a real idiot who would not be better on his record. YKM is also the most tribalistic leader EVER in the history of Uganda and has no shame about it. He has screwed that country like never before, but because in some areas he is yet to reach the lows set by his predecessors, Ugandans still give him the benefit of the doubt, and YKM also goes chest thumping about it. The sad part is that Ugandans tolerate and even worship mediocrity in all spheres.

Yes, the Kingdoms can play a positive role in society. Why is it that the golden days in Buganda when Ugandans from all over the country could settle in Buganda without any problems was before or shortly after independence? Look at Ghana where cultural institutions are accepted and actually respected. No Ghanaian president can talk such nonsense you hear from YKM about kingdoms or traditional chiefs. A Ghanaian friend told me last week that his brother’s funeral is on hold in Accra because under the Gaa-the original ethnic groups around Accra-traditions, funerals cannot place there for some time. They are celebrating their traditions. There are Ugandans here in UAH forum that live in Ghana and can testify to that.

Now to the question some people wanted to ask: suppose Uganda was to embrace federalism how would Kingdoms fit in? Actually the question was settled in 1955 by what is famously known as the Namirembe Agreement of October 1955, which made it clear that Kingdom rulers would be Constitutional Monarchs like the Queen of England is today. I will not abuse the intelligence of UAH folks by explaining what a constitutional monarch is. So when you read Monday’s editorial in the New vision, you begin to understand what we are talking about: mediocrity all over. And by the way, the Namirembe agreement of 1955 applied to all kingdoms not just Buganda. The media in Uganda seems to be ignorant of this famous Agreement based on what they continue to spew out in their pages or editorials whenever YKM speaks out.

So people, ask yourself this question: why is it the case that in Uganda you see people-will not call them leaders-pretending to have what it takes to lead DP, UPC and other opposition parties. Some of the people in those political parties who offered to lead them should never have been in the race in the first place, but because mediocrity is now more or less the norm in Uganda, they offered themselves, and managed to cause chaos in opposition parties.

I am not going to get into the business of naming names here but take a critical look at the pretenders who threaten the identities of their respective parties? Are those the calibre of leaders to take down their traditional parties or to fight and die for? Put differently is the current NEC line up in political parties, particularly DP, in Uganda ,are they there on merit and have something to offer the country in terms of leadership.

UAH forumist in NewYork

Is calling someone ‘omudokolo’ or ‘Jaluo’ or ‘anyanya’an insult

Dear Ugandans,
1/7 Having lived in the Niger Congo B inhabited half of Uganda, you must know the derogatory terms that ignorant Bantu use to refer to the Nilo-Saharan sections of the country’s population.
2/7 Just like you (ignorantly) refer to every one from the southwest as “Rwandese”, you may have heard such terms as “dugudugu”, “Mukooko”, “musolo”, “mudokolo”, “mudokori”, “mungudu” etc being used to refer to Ugandans that are Nilo-Saharan.  Ignorant Bantu even went ahead to distort the term “Bakedi” to interprete it to mean, “the naked” just for the sake of baseless superiority.  As you know, Bakedi in your Lango refer to “the people of the East”, the Kidi….or at times, the people of Okedea.  It was easier for simplistic minds to twist that term to mean nakedness just because coincidentally, those people that were referred to as such happened to be scantily dressed.  Yet some of those misguided southern Ugandans would never explain why they have Luo kings such as Rukidi.  Infact Kabaka Mutebi has a sister called Princess Mukarukidi.
3/7 You will recall Harry Johnston’s anger directed against the Baganda negotiators in 1900 who sulked that he (Johnston) was trying to treat them like the Bakavirondo.  You know that the so-called Kavirondo are the Luo in the Nyanza areas.  Johnston’s response to those Baganda was that, they (the Baganda) were separated from the Kavirondo only by 10 years and two pieces of bark cloth, alluding to the misguided superiority complex…NB: “Kavirondo” itself, though an innocent-sounding term was derogatory, from Swahili “Kaa virondo” (sit: Kaa; on the heels: virondo) because the first European adventurers to reach Nyanza areas seem to have noticed that those people liked to squat…they had no stools to sit on…..
4/7 Anyhow, back to those other terms we started with:  “dugudugu”: means those that speak an unintelligible language, they just bubble and gargle like a simmering paste of thick porridge..i.e., dugudugudugudugudugudugu!  That is how your fellow citizens view you, just like you view all of them as “Rwandese”…..Basolo means animals, beasts, non-Bantu or non-numans, which is the same as Bakooko.  In Runyankore, kikoko is a beast.  Badokolo is closely associated with the region where many early post-independece politicians came from…so everybody then became dokoro.  Such is the ignorance that Mr Basudde and Mr Ekwelu are peddling here.  Very very low on the political scale.  I should say, very primitive.  You, Mr Okello are also fond of that primitive thinking, as you very well know.
5/7 You will also hear people in Buganda referring insultingly to people from the south west as “Basheshe” because of the ubiquitousness of the “sh” combination in Runyankore/Rukiga/Runyarwanda.  They also will call the same people “Bashera” because of a common diet of porridge made from sorghum in Kigezi or eleucine millet in more arid zones of the west.  That primitive thiniking is what Mr Musis exhibited the other day, when upon failing to defend his claims, he drifted into “bushera” talk because according to him, Otto is from Western Uganda.  Of course, Mr Musisi would never be a Mushera because much of Buganda cannot support eleucine millet cultivation.  But such is the ignorance!
6/7 But one wonders: if we who are seemingly highly educated and have access to the information highway, have PhDs, graduates of Universities world-over: if we harbour such clearly idiotic views, how will the mob at Kasubi view behave, the mob over whom we float as the cream?  Are we not just the cream of the crap?  If Mr Musisi fails to debate and drifts into the nonsense of Otto is bushera, what makes him think, him as an unmitigated hooligan, that he deserves to be policed, or ruled in any manner that diverges from what we see now?  We are hooligans and we are policed by hooligans, ruled by hooligans, we prostrate for hooligans: period.  We have the politcians we deserve because they are our mirror image.  That is my quarrel with the Ekwelus, the Basuddes, the Musisis, and oh yes, the Okellos of our world.  We are simply hooligans with LLBs, MAs, PhDs and all that!  The country is in problems and one cannot fail to see where those problems originate from.
7/7 All that stems from the crisis of integration which Uganda continues to face as a very young country.  The diverse communal groupings are yet to develop meaningful horizontal linkages, so, everybody is a strange stranger….”munamawanga”.  You know that for example, in Karimojong, enemy and stranger are the same word…….don’t you?  That continues to sum up everything across the country.

Lance Corporal (Rtd) Patrick Otto

Buganda’s royal tombs in Kasubi burnt


Kasubi Tombs before


Inside the Royal Tombs before fire

Tombs in Kasubi burnt



In the morning


The future is bleak


Graves of the kings


Kabaka Mutebi visit sight

Here is our Kabaka at the scene with tears almost coming out:

Eyewitnesses said the fire started from behind the huts. The main hut was completely destroyed as the surging crowd wailed in disbelief, hampering further the Police efforts to stop the inferno from spreading.

The Police said they could not tell the extent of the damage to the world famous heritage site since they were unable to access it, but it was clear that the huts were reduced to ash.

Situated on a hill within Kampala, the site is an active religious place in Buganda Kingdom.

As a burial ground for four kings, it is a religious centre for the royal family, a place where the Kabaka and his representatives frequently carry out important rituals.

It is also an outstanding example of traditional Ganda architecture and an exceptional testimony of the living Ganda traditions.

For Uganda, the site represents an important symbol of its history and culture. The tombs were listed as a UNESCO world heritage site in 2001.

The Baganda date their political civilisation back to the 13th Century AD. Their first Kabaka was Kintu. He is said to have come with his wife Nambi, whose hand he won by performing heroic deeds at the command of her father Gulu.

The first Kabaka to be buried at Kasubi tombs was Muteesa I, the 35th king.
Buganda’s kings built their palaces on strategic hills to control the major roads to the palace and find easy ways to escape in case of an invasion or rebellion.

Each Kabaka was buried at a separate site in a royal shrine to house his jaw bone, which was believed to contain his spirit.

Muteesa 1 was born around 1835 and was crowned in 1856. He established his palace at Kasubi in 1882, as did his father, Kabaka Suuna 11.

His son Daudi Chwa succeeded him in 1897. Chwa died in 1939 and he was also buried at Kasubi Tombs with his two predecessors.

Chwa was succeeded by his son Edward Muteesa 11. When Uganda attained independence from the British on October 9, 1962, Muteesa II became the constitutional president of Uganda.

However, Apollo Milton Obote stormed his palaces in May 1966 and forced him into exile in England. He died in 1969 in London and his remains were brought back and buried at Kasubi in 1971.

It is not known how the tombs will be rebuilt following the fire last night.

The Police were alerted about the fire at 8:50pm. However, attempts by the fire brigade to reach the site were hampered by a riotous crowd.

“We could not access the scene because of the rioters, so we could not save the tombs,” Simon Musoke, the chief fire officer, explained.
Musoke said three fire trucks were damaged and a fire fighter injured by the rioters.

Details about the cause of the fire and the extent of the damage were scanty.

Last evening, at least two military mambas were seen heading to the site.

Reported by Caroline Batenga, Steven Candia and Raymond Baguma
New Vision 17/3/2010.

Buganda Anthem in full text


Buganda’s Anthem

Twesiimye nnyo, twesiimye nnyo
Olwa Buganda yaffe
Ekitiibwa kya Buganda kyava dda
Naffe tukikuumenga

Okuva edda n’edda eryo lyonna
Eryo eggwanga Buganda
Nti lyamanyibwa nnyo eggwanga lyaffe
Okwetoloola ensi yonna

Abazira ennyo abatusooka
Baalwana nnyo mu ntalo
Ne balyagala nnyo eggwanga lyaffe
Naffe tulyagalenga

Ffe abaana ba leero ka tulwane
Okukuza Buganda
Nga tujjukira nnyo bajjajja baffe
Baafirira ensi yaffe

Nze naayimba ntya ne sitenda
Ssaabasajja Kabaka
Asaanira afuge Obuganda bwonna
Naffe nga tumwesiga

Katonda omulungi ow’ekisa
Otubeere Mukama
Otubundugguleko emikisa gyo era
Bbaffe omukuumenga

On the Issue of Kabaka not being Elected- Bothers m7-why?


On the issue of HH the Kabaka not being elected
That shows how m7 does not understand the cultures and norms in Uganda, “ebyensikirano n’ebye nonno”, have nothing to do with being subjected to elections. m7 has never been heir to any one in Uganda prominent as he thinks he is, simply because most probably he is not from Uganda and the issue that he is omunyankore is still a myth, even to the real Banyakore themselves though the chap is still alive and well in Uganda.

M7 refused the coronation of the Ankore Kingdom which is highly doubtable whether he hails from Ankore. Very soon m7 will have to preside over family issues where by if your grandfather/father/mother/uncle dies then you have to be elected by your family members in order to become a heir in this regard, especially where land and property is involved. Thats why he is fighting un-ethical simple wars and wants to give land to those who he thinks are like him, the squaters, which the baganda call the serwajja okwotas on people’s land, some of it of course came to them as in being passed on by those who have left us.

And the question still stands who elected m7 to become a minister in Lule’s Govt or Binaisa govt? and who elected him in 1986- up to 1990, we are not even sure that he was elected all this time but stealing the vote, thus being envious of the Kabaka, his Katikiros and Mengo officials and the wielding of what he calls political power, thats not political power its the love people embedded in their cultures and norms and can have their Kingdom and its leaders without question or doubt of the choices made by the King, Its the serwajja okwotas asking as to why the leaders and the KABAKA HIMSELF WHY THEY ARE NOT ELECTED. It is not the rigging or craftmanship of stealing votes and waging war that shows you have power, m7 use your btrains.

M7 is a typical example of what the Baganda call omukopi w’empisa, he thinks everything has to voted on, and when it comes to him, he has to dodge the vote and use dubious means to steal it, then the Sovereighn God and the devil should stand for elections, and guess what the devil will win since he has many people who think like m7, the majority in the world support the devil and his temporary gifts/powers that he has lent to many like m7 himself. And therefore Heaven will be taken over by the devil as Uganda is today.

If the people reject the idea of voting on the Kabaka then m7 will move the motion that muhoozi becomes president without elections too, since he thinks in his madness that he is a King of some sort, a sabagabe since he restored kingdoms in Uganda, his urgument is unintellectual that since he allowed this people the Kingships, then what is his title? isnt it sabagabe?, and why should he be subjected to elections when other people are not, like all the Kings we have in Uganda and elsewhere like england,

This is not ekanya land of comics mr., the reflection of all this check it out m7 has the greatest number of relatives in govt since independence in Uganda and most of them come from his wife’s side that he had never met before until he became the master rigger of the vote, so where are those from his side if they are not from a neighboring country?

Mayiko Makula


The Ganda Clan System

Ssebo Dr, Jones Josia Kyazze,
Nsanyuse nnyo okusomako ku bye wawandiika ebikwaata ku Bika bya Buganda mu lupapula lwe wateekako omutwe ogwo waggulu. Kinzizaamu nnyo amaanyi ne kimpa essanyu lya kitalo okulaba nga tukyalinawo abantu abamanyi ensonga enkulu nga zino ezitukwatako ng’abantu Mukama be yasindika okuzaalibwa mu Bwakabaka bwa Buganda nga obwo bwe bulambe bwaffe ku mulundi guno gwetulimu wano ku nsensimbe mukasansi (planet earth).
Nsaba nkweyanjulire ssebo mukama wange:
Amannya gange: Bhuka Bijumiro-Jjumiro
Kitange: Muhammadi Kalaagira Mayanja
Obutakabwe: Katiko e Nnaama mu Ggombolola ye Busimbi e Mityana.
Ndi muzzukulu wa Kisubi, mutabani wa Lule Buddeddi mutabaji wa Ssemuwemba, mutabani wa Bawalessanvu mutabani wa Bwangatto eyeddiranga Eng’onge okuva mu ssiga lya Lutaaya e Bbongole eyali mutabani wa Katikkiro Kisolo ku mulembe gwa Ssekabaka Kintu.
Ndi musajja muwandiisi wa bitabo naddala ebikwata ku by’okuyiga bino:
1. Ekkubo lya Basseruggulamiryango ery’Obutangaavu (Obutuukirivu) eryayitibwanga Ekkubo Eddemeezi (Mysticism).
2. Ebyobuwangwa obw’ensi yonna (World Culture and Traditions).
3. Ensibuko y’Abantu, Obuwangwa bwabwe, Enzikiriza zaabwe n’emirimu gyabwe mu bulamu obukusike (Esoteric Cultural Anthropology/ Enthnology)
4. Ebyafaayo by’Abatuukirivu ab’Ensi Yonna (World Spiritual History).
5. Amagezi Amakusike aga Ssitirizi (Esoteric Psychology).
6. Okuzuula, okujjanjaba n’okuziyiza endwadde z’Abaana ezitali za kungulu (Metapediatrics)
7. Engeraageranya Y’Amadiini (Comparative Religion)
Kye nsaba ssebo, nnandyagadde nnyo okukolagana naawe n’abakugu abalala bomanyi naddala ku nsonga ezikwaata ku nsi yattu Buganda ne Uganda n’okukulaakulana kwayo mu makowe egatali gamu. Mpandiise ebitabo bingi mu Luyunganda n’Olungereza ebikwata ku masomo agatali gamu kw’ago ge ndaze waggulu. Oyinza okunkyalirako ku website yange eno: kw’ojja okusanga ebimu kw’ebyo bye twakafulumya.
Nga kampuni ekyali ento ddala ekizibu kye tukyalina, kwe kubeera nga tetulina ba editors ba bitabo bya Lungereza ate nga tusinze kuwandiika bya Luganda. Nabyo tetunnabifunira basensuzi era nze mpandiika ate ne nsensula ekintu ekizibu ddala okukola obulungi. Mu kiseera kino twayagala tusinge kuwandiika ebitabo bibeerewo bingi birisensulwa oluvannyuma naye nga tufunye omusingi omugumu ogwoleka obugagga mu Luyunganda. Tetunnassa ssira ku bya kusamyassamya (advertising and promotion) oba okutunda ebitabo byaffe, omulaka tukyagutadde ku kukungaanya oba kuwandiika buwandiisi. Bwe tufuna abantu abamala abeesigwa abasobola okusensula, okusamyassamya, n’okutunda, nga tugenda mu maaso ebitabo nga bibuna ensi yonna mu nnimi zonna ezisoboka.
Nga bw’onoolaba ku website yaffe, ebitabo ebisinga bikwata ku kaliisoliiso wa byamwoyo  nga tubisimbulira ddala mu buwangwa bwa Bajjajjaffe Bakalimagezi Abasengejje nga bwe baabiyigirizanga ekiro nga batudde ku kyoto.
Nnaasanyusa nnyo ssebo mukama wange okufuna okuddibwamu okuva gy’oli era n’okukolagana mu nsonga ezikwatagana n’Obuwangwa bwaffe mu makowe agatali gamu.
Omuweerezaawo bulijjo
Bhuka Bijumiro-Jjumiro Msc.D.

Mirima’s positions are either conflicted, or he is doing so for political expedience


Mr. Henry Ford Mirima,
May I remind you of another Luganda saying, “Ekidedde ekigenza omukadde mu lusalosalo….” which roughly translates “a Darker cloudy sky makes an old person poop nearby…” This is done in the hope that the run-off water will wash away the excrements, but alas often darker clouds do not translate into rain, and the poop stinks up the home to the regret of the “old fellow.”
I fear for those who are pooping in the “lusalosalo” in the hope that the cloud hovering over Uganda is set to rain. Bless your soul, but also be blessed for the stench, phew; does smell goo at all!

I have no reason to challenge your Luganda, my path has crossed yours in the past, we walked the same lanes in the 80’s and I trust your competence in Luganda. (With total respect I would love you to recall another Kasala be cca…) First of all I did not claim to be a pure Muganda, what I am sure of is that despite the fact that I am a hybrid Muganda, not pure Muganda I am uncompromisingly proud to be a Muganda. But what is more important to note here again is the fact that these are not Baganda/Banyoro issues, these are national matters. All I did was to show you that every coin has two sides and you seem to only be looking at one side. The good thing is that you understand the importance of nantabulirirwa… that combined with ndiwulira… should and must be guiding maps in our ethos. Thus far, I will belabor the following:-
I put it to you that some of the extreme positions you have taken of late indicate that you are either conflicted, or you are doing so for political expedience. The man from Karuguuza, the son of that decent soul of a unique nature our elder Kazairwe (RIP) I know, can not be the same one posting what is attached to your name on this forum. I have refused to believe it, because I know you are a much better person, who embodies the great grain of your late father. The Mirima I know is a reconciliatory person not a provocateur
You have repeatedly accused the Baganda of being “colonialists,” I do not think that any one can deny that fact, but who is innocent of this crime? The Baganda could have been colonialists in your view, but is you ask me there is an alternative story that is not often told. You know that Buganda did not start with Kintu, the Banyoro had colonized a land occupied by a people called “Balasangeye” who had constantly fought Banyoro for their freedom. I believe in your research you have came across the facts relating to Chief Mugoziita and finally Buganda, whose reign-line ended with Bemba, who was overthrown by Kintu. Kintu finally was able to repel Banyoro from Buganda and declared Buganda an independent Kingdom in a meeting of clan heads which met at present day Nnono. You are aware that Bunyoro in its war adventures had almost extended as far as present day Busoga proper. That far we have all been there! Therefore your father’s reconciliatory tone in regards to these matters was, and is a better approach. We are all Cameroonian Bantu (read Vansina, Path through the Forest) and at the center of it all we are brothers, we need to figure out how to deal with our past. It is important to figure out how to use the history markers to inform our tomorrow. How do we decide what time period in history to revisit and what to exclude is a question is can not answer?

lawrence mukasa Ssemagulu

Relationship between Himas and Buganda


1/7 mine is not an attempt to re-write Buganda history but to tell it as it is in response to some Baganda’s Hima-hate campaign which will unfortunately wind up at the Buganda royal house.

2/7 Tracing the ancestry of Nyakazaana was not an end in itself but a means of shedding light on the basic facts that we disregard when we are stoking antipathy against certain groups.  Key here is the extent to which groups have intermingled over time, and in case of Buganda, the extent to which it is indeed a bundle of bundles, one of which bundles are Bahima. One could almost argue that Buganda is a bundle of Bahima and balaalo, contrary to what many of you think.

3/7 Look at this: the mother of Kabaka Mutebi I, Wanyana, was the daughter of Mugalula Buyonga, the founder of the Nseenene (conjugated from Nswa enene) clan.  Mugalula, originally called Mugarra, a Muhima from Busongora and a mulaalo, moved with others from Busongora, with their herds of cattle and settled in Bweera via Buddu, then eventually moving to Nakanoni village in Gomba and on to Kisozi.

4/7 One of Mugalula’s brothers, Kalyebala (whose Kiganda’s corruption is “Kalibbala) became the chief mulaalo of Chwa I, Kabaka Kintu’s successor, was to be promoted to the chieftainship of Kayima or Kaima (in Runyakitara, part of which Rusongora is, Kahuma or Kahima, the cattle keeper or mulaalo). The Kayima or Kaima is still the title of the Chief of the Ssaza of Mawokoto (just like we have the Mugema of Busiro, the Kasujju of Busujju, the Katambala of Butambala; the Pokino of Buddu, the Sekibobo of Kyaggwe etc).  All those were Bahima.  I am sure you know that, those of Nsenene clan that lost their herds of cattle to rinderpest in the 1880s and resorted to crop rearing are now called Baima abatasunda, that is, the “Bahima that no longer churn milk”.

5/7 As Mr Kateregga has been telling us here, Mutesa I’s mother, Ndwaddewazziba, was a Muhima; Prince Badru Kakungulu’s mother was a Muhima, Prince John Kintu Wassajja’s mother was a Muhima, Princess Teyeggala’s mother was a Muhima, and as we have shown you here at UAH, Prince Jjunju Suna Kiwewa’s mother is a Mututsi, the Muhima equivalent of Rwanda-Burundi.  The whole process of the arrival on the scene of your likely next Kabaka has been a process of concentrating Hima/Tutsi blood at Mmengo.  You do not have to hate or love the fact.  That is how it is.

6/7 So, in your current royal family, there is Hima blood coming from deep, deep on the Kabaka’s paternal side, and there is Hima/balaalo blood from the Kabaka’s maternal side, in the line of Zakaria Sensalire himself, Ham Mukasa’s father, and on the side of Nyakazaana, Ham Mukasa’s mother.

7/7 Digging up family histories should not trouble you alot.  It is family histories that make up clan histories, and then community histories.  We are simply trying to understand what we are as communities.

Lance Corporal (Rtd) Otto Patrick

Note:Katerega works for NewVision and a regular contributor to the UAH forum

Relationship between Nyakazaana and Buganda kingdom

Dear Baganda,
1/7 What do you mean by “Nabakooba is a partisan Muhima on a pro ‘Nyakazaana’ anti people mission” ?  You mean support for Nyakazaana is pro-Hima and probably anti-Ganda?
2/7 Bahima particularly Maama Nyakazaana, have given Buganda Kabakas and Chiefs.  The prominent Nyakazaana is of the Bahinda clan of the Royal family of Nkore (“Ankole”) and the earlier you got to know her, the better for you in your effort to be in good stead with Buganda royalty.  Thus far, things may not be good for you.
3/7 This is what I mean: Nyakazaana was the wife of Zachary Kiwanuka Sensalire, and together, they were the parents of Ham Mukasa Rwamujonjoza (1871-1956), one of the greatest sons of Buganda.  Ham Mukasa as you know was the Sekibobo of Buganda (i.e., the Chief of Kyaggwe), the longest serving chief in the history of Buganda.  Zakariya Kiwanuka Sensalire was himself a descendant of a long line of Sensalires, i.e. heads of the balalo clan of Njovu who are known to have gained prominence right from the days of Kabaka Kintu as the official balaalo.  Up to now, it remains the duty of the Njoveu clan to educate every new Kabaka on the art of bulaalo (herding).  Like other balaalo, Sensalire married from among his fellow Bahima, hence the Nyakazaana that you are now vilifying.
4/7 Nyakazaana, a Muhima, was the mother of Ham Mukasa as we have seen.  Ham Mukasa, with his first wife Anna Mawemuko, then went ahead to father  Victoria Sarah Nalwanga (b. 1910).  Nalwanga was the mother of the two Kisosonkoles, Sarah and Damali, the wives of Kabaka Edward Mutesa II.
5/7 Sarah Kisosonkole, (the great grand daughter of Nyakazana), was Kabaka Mutebi’s mother. The Kiganda version of the Hima name, Nakazana has stuck around up to now. Kabaka Mutebi’s first Namasole was known as Edith Nakazana.  She passed away recently in London, I think on 02 Sep 2008, and you may have even attended her funeral service!
6/7 So, by vilifying Nyakazaana are you may be launching a calculated assault of Kabaka Mutebi’s parentage or you really do not know what you are talking about.  From my instinct, I suspect the latter.
7/7 Baganda had better educate you on the roots of Buganda royalty or start being weary of you as a “green grass in the snake”.  Your anti-Nyakazaana vitriol is as venomous as it is inimical to Buganda.

Lance Corporal (Rtd) Otto Patrick

Note:Nabakooba is Uganda Police spokesperson

Mutesa II family challenges Kabaka’s legality


Monitor Online

Mutesa II family challenges Kabaka’s legality

Posted in: News

By Lominda Afedraru
Apr 4, 2009 – 2:00:35 AM


The Family of Sir Edward Mutesa II has petitioned the Constitutional Court challenging the legality of Kabaka Ronald Mutebi as King of Buganda.

Ms Sarah Namasole Natolo who claims to be the mother of late Kabaka Mutesa II and Prince David Simbwa, the son of Kabaka Daudi Chwa claim when the government passed the 1967 Constitution, it tampered with the kingdom constitution that provided for the election of the Kabaka.

The petitioners claim Article 2 of the Buganda Kingdom Constitution states that “the Kabaka who is ruler of the Buganda Kingdom shall be elected by the Majority Votes of the Lukiiko”.

They argue that although any prince including the Kabaka is entitled to nominate or choose his own personal successor upon death, the Kabaka remains to be elected by majority votes of the Lukiiko.

According to the petitioners the past Kabaka’s of Buganda nominated their personal successors but the Lukiiko went ahead to elect other people.

Irene Drusilla Namaganda wa the Namasole of Sir Edward Muteesa ll.


Irene Drusilla Namaganda wa the Namasole of Sir Edward Muteesa ll. Upon her death, she was succeeded by Sarah Nattoolo. We have namasoles for early Kabakas like Kintu, Chwa, Kimera etc… We have naalinnyaas for all Kabakas. For example Princess Srah Kagere, sister of Kabaka Ronnie Mutebi, is the nnaalinnya of Kabaka Kintu. Princess Kigga, another brother of Kabaka Mutebi, is the Nnaalinnya of Winyi at Kibulala Singo etc…. So Natoolo is the Namasole of Ssekabaka Muteesa ll. It is like the incumbent Ronald Mutebi ll. His Queen mother died in the seventies. But she was succeeded by another one who stands in for her. Natoolo is not the biological mother of Kabaka Muteesa, but the official Queen Mother.

Namasole has a valid point, but as we were moving towards coronation in 1993, the Ssaabataka proclaimed the Ssaabataka Supreme Council to become Olukiiko lwa Buganda and l think in the process it elected a Kabaka. The Mmengo Information Minister Charles Peter Mayiga , can be of good help on this.

Ahmed Katerega Mussazi

Mwebale nyo

Mbalamusizza nnyo banange. Kirungi era kisanyusa nnyo olwomuwendo gwemuwaayo okunonyereza ko nokutuusa ku banaffe bangi okutegeera nokwongera okumanya obulungi ebifa ku nyaffe Buganda.
Mbakakasa nti okufuba kwamwe si kwabwereere. Mugende mu maaso naffe tujja kuba mabega wamwe  era nokwongerako kye tumanyi anti kamukamu gwemuganda.
Ssekabaka Sir edward Muteesa mu kwogerakwe eri eggwanga ku lunaku lwa independence yateegeeza nga bweyali yenyumiririza ennyo mu Jjajawe Mutesa 1 olwebyo byeyayolesebwa nasobola okukolera obuganda ne uganda yonna okutwalira awamu.
Nkakasa nga namwe mwenyumiririza mu ba jjajjamwe benkakasa nga nabo baali bantu ngwanguli anti ekyo kyeragira kumwe okuba nti temuwena.
“The prime virtue of life is COURAGE because it makes all other virtues possible” Winston churchill. Obuvumu bwamwe bweyongere bubeere nekubaana bamwe nekubazukulu.
Twesiimye nnyo olwa Buganda yaffe! Eriyo abantu abalowooza nti abaganda abeda abaali abazira ennyo tebakyaliwo. Abo tubasaasidde nnyo. Ate mwe mujja kuba bazira nokukirawo anti mukolera mu mbeera nzibu nnyo ate nga mwesudde amabanga naye mukama anaabanga namwe Era oyo gwetusaba bulijjo abakuume. AMIINA.
 Ai ensi yaffe twewayo gyoli. Ssabassajja Kabaka awangale.