Contraversial Iddi Amin’s parentage that links him to the royal family in Buganda

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Nyabire’s wife was Assa Aatte, the lady who was the obstetric herbalist for the Buganda Royal family in the days of Kabaka Chwa. Recall that she is claimed to have enabled Lady Irene Druscilla Namaganda to conceive, after many years of trying and failing. Assa Aatte was very close to the Chwa’s and this caused serious problems in the Nyabire family as you know. Iddi Amin was born during the time of that closeness (1922) and as you know, claims emerged that Kabaka Chwa was actually the father of Idi Amin, causing Amin’s parents to separate in 1931 when Amin was just 9. Nyabire threw Assa out of the Kololo Police Barracks, prompting her to shift to Lubiri palaca with the young Amin. When this started causing anxiety within royal circles, Kabaka Chwa decided to build a house for Assa Aatte at Kitubulu….llll

Amin’s parents only reunited grudgingly in 1964 when Amin had become successful, but even then, Mzee Nyabire remained convinced to his death in 1976 that Idi Amin belonged not to him, but to Buganda Royalty.

Idi Amin with Mariam in 1961

Idi Amin with Mariam in 1961

‘Geraldine Fisher, Daughter of a past headmistress of Gayaza High School visited Gayaza with her husband. Some old girls in the picture + Joan Cox, the Headmistress then in back row. ‘

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‘Geraldine Fisher, Daughter of a past headmistress of Gayaza High School visited Gayaza with her husband. Some old girls in the picture + Joan Cox, the Headmistress then in back row.In the photo i can see late Mrs Lilian Mukwaya sister to QC Binaisa sitting between the two whites, second right standing is the late Mrs Rebecca Mulira. I am wondering whether a lady standing on the right is the late Sarah Nabikolo Mukasa( wife of the late Hamu Mukasa)

 i can see late Mrs Lilian Mukwaya sister to QC Binaisa sitting between the two whites, second right standing is the late Mrs Rebecca Mulira. I am wondering whether a lady standing on the right is the late Sarah Nabikolo Mukasa( wife of the late Hamu Mukasa)

i can see late Mrs Lilian Mukwaya sister to QC Binaisa sitting between the two whites, second right standing is the late Mrs Rebecca Mulira.
I am wondering whether a lady standing on the right is the late Sarah Nabikolo Mukasa( wife of the late Hamu Mukasa)

‘Extreme left: Amin, Moi centre, Kenyatta, Onul Ir. Njoroge Mungai in Nairobi in 1972′

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‘Joy Joy at Nile Mansions’
LLL

2.’Extreme left: Amin, Moi centre, Kenyatta, Onul Ir. Njoroge Mungai in Nairobi in 1972′.Idi Amin is 3rd frm left, then Moi and Kenyatta. 2nd from left is Njoroge Mungai.Njoroge Mungai.. I believe he was Defence Minister then in Kenyatta’s Govt.
LLL2

H.E. President Lt. Gen. M. Micombero,Idi Amin and H.E. Maj. Gen. Habyalimana

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‘H.E. President Lt. Gen. M. Micombero addresses the Public in Nakivubo Stadium on the 3rd Anniversary of the Second Republic. On his left is H.E. President Gen. Idi Amin of Uganda and on his right is H.E. Maj. Gen. Habyalimana president of Ruanda’. Habyarimana’s death still remains a mystery..

'H.E. President Lt. Gen. M. Micombero addresses the Public in Nakivubo Stadium on the 3rd Anniversary of the Second Republic. On his left is H.E. President Gen. Idi Amin of Uganda and on his right is H.E. Maj. Gen. Habyalimana president of Ruanda'. Habyarimana's death still remains a mystery..

‘H.E. President Lt. Gen. M. Micombero addresses the Public in Nakivubo Stadium on the 3rd Anniversary of the Second Republic. On his left is H.E. President Gen. Idi Amin of Uganda and on his right is H.E. Maj. Gen. Habyalimana president of Ruanda’. Habyarimana’s death still remains a mystery..

2.’S.E. Le Lieutenant Général Michel Micombero. Premier Président de la République du Burundi. Libérateur du Peuple Murundi’ [H.E. Lt. General Michel Mocombero. First president of the Republic of Burundi. Liberator of the Murundi people]

'S.E. Le Lieutenant Général Michel Micombero. Premier Président de la République du Burundi. Libérateur du Peuple Murundi' [H.E. Lt. General Michel Mocombero. First president of the Republic of Burundi. Liberator of the Murundi people]

‘S.E. Le Lieutenant Général Michel Micombero. Premier Président de la République du Burundi. Libérateur du Peuple Murundi’ [H.E. Lt. General Michel Mocombero. First president of the Republic of Burundi. Liberator of the Murundi people]

SOURCE: HISTORY OF UGANDA IN PROGRESS ON FACEBOOK

COMPARE AND CONTRAST AFRICA TRADITIONAL RELIGION TO JUDAISM, CHRISTIANITY AND ISLAM

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Some years ago l attempted to compare African Traditional Religion, Judaism, Christianity and Islam, and it can be a good food .

l however left out celibacy, which is featring now prominently. Among the Baganda and and Africans, some priests and priestrasses lived a celibate life just like the ROman Catholic Church and partly by the Greek Orthodox Church

RELIGION:

The belief in existence of a god or gods. A system of beliefs in a god or gods that has it’s own ceremonies and traditions according to Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners.


TRADITIONAL:

It comes from tradition. Tradition means a very old custom, belief or story. Very old customs, beliefs or stories considered together according to Macmillan English Dictionary. Traditional is relating to or based on very old customs, beliefs or stories.

AFRICAN:

Relating to Africa or it’s languages or cultures according to Macmillan English Dictionary.

(Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners, International Student Edition, published by Macmillan Publishers Limited 2002. First Published 2002).

African Traditional Religion is the religions system of the Africans before they become exposed or mixed up with other religions notably Judaism, Christianity and Islam. It is still in practice in Tropical or Sub Saharan Africa. It is a belief in God, deities, spirits, fetishes, animals, plants and water bodies according to Rev. John .S. Mbiti, PHD(Canterbury). Formerly, professor of theology and comparative religion Makerere University College, and now Director of the Ecumenical Institute in Swaziland, “Africans are notoriously religions, and such people has its own religious system with a set of beliefs and practices in African”. (African Religions and Philosophy, Published by Heinemann Educational Books Ltd. First Published in 1969).

According to Baganda oral traditions and archeological evidence, the Baganda, a Bantu nation and majority nationality in Uganda, cultivators on the North Western shares of Lake Victoria, believed in the Almighty God whom they called Katonda (meaning Creator) with a shrine at Butonda in Kyaggwe County, now Mukono District. They all called him Dunda (Sheperd), Namugereka (Planner of the Universe, Liisoddene (The All Seer), Sewannaku (The Omnipresent).

According to Dr. Michael Bazzebulala Nsimbi, in his book, Amannya amaganda n’ennono zaago, Katonda, was a God of Peace In neighbouring Bunyoro – Kitara empire including Bunyoro and Ankole Kingdoms, the supreme god, was called Ruhanga which means, the one who put up every thing. And among the Luo in the Northern Uganda, notably Acholi, and Alur, Jepadola in Eastern Uganda, and Jaluo in Nyanza Province, Western Kenya, He was called Lubanga. Lubanga is now one of the gods in Buganda.

However, in the 16th Century, the Kingdom of Buganda under Kabaka (King) Nakibinge, was conquered by the sister twin kingdom of Bunyoro under Omukama (King) Winyi I. Nakibinge was killed in the battle and his body was recovered from a trench after several years. (Bassekabaka b’e Buganda by Sir Apollo Kaggwa and Abateregga, ku Namulondo y’e Buganda by J. S. Kasirye). The Baganda were driven into Lake Victoria and sought refuge in Ssese Islands. From there, they got mercenaries including Lubaale (gods) which helped and drove Banyoro away. (Dr. M. B. Nsimbi, Amannya amaganda n’ennono zaago and Prof. Lwanga Lunyiigo of Eastern Land straggles in Uganda). Among the gods was Kibuuka, the gods of wars, who was tricked by a Munyoro woman, and was killed in a battle at Mbale near Mpigi Town Council in Mawokota County. Ever since, he was worshipped as a national god of war, and he belongs to Ndiga (Sheep clan).

He had a junior brother, god Kyobe. Other gods include Wannema (god of polio), Kawumpuli (god of flue), Mukasa (god of lakes) Kiwanuka (god of thunder), Musoke (god of rain fall) Dungu ( god of hunting, Muwanga (god of hills) and mountains and also the sun, the moon, the stars and the sky.

Instead of worship one Supreme God, Katonda, directly, since the 16th Century, Baganda started worshiping lubaale. Some gods are national cutting across Baganda, and the entire great lakes, region, like Mukasa, who in Ankole, is called Mugasha, and Nakayima, whom the Banyoro and Banyankore call Nyakahuma.

Lubaale are both male and female. Among the males which cut across the region are Kaliisa in Luganda or Kariisa in Runyankitara, who is a god of pastoralists. Nakayima / Nyakahuma is a female one. Nyakahuma has a shrine at Mubende. Some are for provinces or tribes like Kyaggwe, Buddu, Bulemeezi, Singo and Ssese. For example, god Kawumpuli, has a shrine at Buyego in Bulemeezi or Luwero District.

Then there are spirits (emizimu). Those are the living dead, according to Dr. Mbiti, these are ancestors of a family both nucleus and extended, including a lineage or a sub clan. They are believed to always be around the home, to look after their off springs. This is a family affair. Whereas gods have big shrines whether national or provincial/tribal, spirits have small shrines in very homestead. For example, Baganda believe that if a banana leaf breaks down, it is a sign of an ancestor or spirit tipping his/her off spring that he/she is around.

Baganda, just like other Africans, believed in “emisambwa” which are in form of humans, animals, trees and water bodies. They believe that a “musambwa” can be in form of a beautiful woman, or a snake like python, which may not allow a dirty person to go to fetch water from a well. This was for good hygiene and sanitation. The musambwa can be in a form of a leopard, which feeds on goats of its off springs or even the off springs themselves (According to a song, Engo y’ekiggwa by Fred Sebatta of Matendo Promoted Singers).

It can also be a well like Nnalongo Nagadya at Kabowa, on the banks of River Mayanja. These is also a Musambwa of River Katonga which National Resistance Movement Army (NRM/NRA) rebels made a lot of sacrifices during the years 1985/1986 battles along Katonga bridge, on Kampala Masaka high Way, with government forces. They were passing through oracle. Nnaalongo Nakazaana, who has just passed away as Deputy Resistant District Commissioner (RDC) Mubende District.

Misambwa are also male and female. One of the males is Walumbe (compared to Angel of Death in Judaism, Christianity and Islam) or Ssaalongo Kinenebatenda. He has caved at Tanda near Mityana along Kampala-Mubende High Way. These were said to be trenches during the battles between Walumbe and his brother Kayikuuzi in a story of creation which is almost similar to that of the Bible and the Qur’an. Among the female ones is Nnaalongo Nabinene at Kabowa on the banks of River Mayanja.

Baganda believe that water bodies are born by human beings. For example, they believe that River Mayanja was born as a set of twins with the main river as Waswa (Senior) and its tributary as Kato (Junior) (Abateregga ku Namulondo y’e Buganda by J.S. Kasirye.

Most of water bodies names are female for example, Lake Victoria, is called Nalubaale (Lake of gods) among the Baganda and Basoga. The Misambwe are very similar to Arab and Swahilli Jiins of the Middle East, Indian Ocean and East African Coast. Muslims believe that Jiins are God’s creation which was created, like human beings to worship God (The Holy Quran).

Here even totems for clans among the Baganda, and other people of the great lakes religion, can be regarded as a form of Animism, another names for African Traditional Religion, of worshiping animals, plants, and other creatures.

Every clan has a totem which is its traditional symbol like the Uganda national court of arms, which is made up of a crested cane and an antelope, among others. According to Dr. Nsimbi, clan’s totems were, initially, taboos for their ancestors until they were revered. Buganda now has 56 totemic clans. These are birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, fish and plants. Among them are Ngabi (Antelope), Mpologoma (Lion), Ngo (Leopard), Nkima (Monkey). Nsimbi urges that this was for environment and wildlife protection.

Baganda also believe in Mayembe (Fetishes) According to Macmillan English Dictionary a fetish is “an object believed to be magic or holy and worshiped by people”. The fetishes are put in hones of wild animals like buffalo, antelopes, hippos e.t.c. The fetishes are “askaris” or enforcers of the will of lubaale (gods). They treat sick people but they are also hired to bewitch others and even strangle them.

Like lubaale, emisambwa and emizimu, mayembe also have shrines and some are regional, national provincial/tribal or clan. But they can be bought and sold off. They can also speak through oracles. But can also speak directly in darkness. However, this is subject to abuse as traditional healers under Uganda n’eddagala lyaayo failed to make fetishes speak in light at Constitutional Square as demanded by Rev. Fr. Bro. Anatoli Waswa, of Bannakarooli Brothers, a healer himself. Among the fetishes are Lubowa and Lukindu which are male, and Nambaga, Nalubowa and Nanseko, which are female. The last trio is for not only fertility but also delivery and infancy.

The others important feature in African Traditional Religion is the mediums or oracles (Abalubaale) on whom, the others communicate. These can be compared to Biblical and Qur’anic prophets or fore fellers. There are both male and female. They are used to fore tell bad and good events, but are subject to abuse, and many give false prophecies. These are the custodians of the shrines, they are medicine men/women, and they are the kabona (priests) of the African Traditional Religion.

On places of worship, just as Jews have synagogues and a Temple, Christians have Churches and Muslims have mosques, African traditionalists have shrines. Some are regional like Nakayima’s at Mubende, some are national like Katonda’s at Butonda, and some are for tribes, clan and families. Just as shoes are removed while one is entering a synagogue or a mosque, it is the same with shrines. Even women in menstruation period, and couples are not allowed to enter before bathe (Cleaning Janabbah off if Muslims). This is for cleanliness both spiritual and physical.

When it comes to offering to god, even traditionalists do so in form of goats, cows, sheep, chicken etc. Among the Baganda, lubaale Mukasa is offered a white goat, ejjembe Kiwanuka is offered a brown sheep, these are not only for slaughter but also for raring.

On pilgrimage, as Jews make a pilgrimage to Jerusalem and Christians to Holy Land, and Muslims to Holy cities of Mecca Medina and Jerusalem, African traditionalists also have their own holy places for pilgrimage. Basoga visit Bujagali falls near the source of River Nile, Baganda, Banyoro and Banyankore visit Nakayima in Mubende. Abandawula culture makes periodical pilgrimage at Buwaali. Many tribes and clans have their ancestral and spiritual places they visit at specific periods.

These are also rituals like initiation ceremonies. Among the Jews, it is circumcision on the 7th day of a baby boy. Among the Christians, it is baptism and among the Muslims, it is circumcision of a baby boy. Some Africans also practice circumcision both male and female, although female genital mutilation is abandoned as inhuman. In Uganda only Sabiny tribe in Sebei Sub Region, eastern Uganda still practices it. The Bamasaba and Sabiny tribes on Mount Elgon and Bakonjo and Bamba tribes on Rwenzori Mountains of the Moon on Uganda/ Congo boarder practice male circumcision.Howver World Health Organisation has recommended for circumcision of all males for hygienic and medical purposes but there is no political will among some African countries like Uganda to support the move.

Most tribes in Kenya, North Africa, the Sudan’s belt and West Africa practice male circumcision. Some still practice female genital mutilation. Among the Baganda, the initiation ceremony is called “Okwalula abaana (initiating the children into the family or clan) or okuzina abalongo (a special initiation ceremony for twins)”

The other important feature is the story of creation. As Jews, Christians and Muslims, believe that God created Adam and Eve who produced all human beings on planet Earth, African traditionalists also believe that God created the fathers and mothers of their tribes and nations. For example, Baganda believe that the first man on earth or first Muganda was Kintu who was poor and had one cow on whose dung and whose urine he fed until he married Nambi the daughter of Gulu, the god of sky. Nambi made a mistake of retrning home contrary to Gulu’s order and she came with her brother Walumbe (Death) who started killing Kintu and Nambi’s children until another brother Kayikuzi, came to confer Walumbe’s antics the battle was at Tanda near Mityana Highway along Kampala-Mubende High Way. (Dr. Nsimbi in Amannya Amaganda n’ennono zaago)

The Bamasaba, Basoga, Banyoro and Banyankole also have a story of Kintu, although slightly different from that of Baganda. The Banyoro and Banyankore, for example, believe that Kintu was the first man on earth or in Kitara region and had three sons, Kairu (cultivator) Kahima (pastoralist) and Kakama (ruler) who are the ancestors of all cultivators, pastoralists and rulers respectively. The Kikuya also had a story of Gikuyu and Mumbi as the father and mother of the tribe respectively. (Prof. Ngugo wa Thiongo in the River Between).

However, the creation stories are attributed to the end of first millennium and beginning of the second millennium and are therefore inaccurate. Even that of Biblical, Adam which is said to have happened over 6,000 years ago, is contested as man has been on the East African Plateau two hundred thousand years ago, according to archeological discoveries. The Pygmies were here before the formation of Lake Victoria and the East African Rift Valley, according to archeological evidence. The oldest fossils were found in Ethiopia, Olduvai George in Tanzania, Nsongezi on River Kagera in Uganda and also in South Africa (East Africa Through A Thousand Years by S. Were and Wilson 1982).

Like Jews, Christians and Muslims, Africans also believed in life after death. Although they were not specific on Haven and whether physical or spiritual, ancient Egyptians and Nubians believed in life after death. They built Pyramids for their pharaohs (kings) where they buried them with their wives, servants, dogs, food, cooking utensils etc… so that they use them in life after death. Africans’ belief in emizimu (spirits) as living deads, is a sign of believing in life after death. In fact, the Luganda word “okufa” (death) is derived from “okufuuka ” (to change).

But like Judaism, and unlike Christianity and Islam, ATR is not missionary. It is hereditary although a person can be integrated in a clan or tribe and a foreign god and practice can be integrated.

Unlike Jews who have the Old Testament, Christians who have the Gospel and Muslims the Quran, ATR has no standard written holly book. Although the art of writing was discovered by early Egyptians along the Nile valley, Sub Saharan Africans remained illiterate until the second half of the 19th century. However, all dos and don’ts of ATR are kept in unwritten holly books in form of oral traditions from one generation to another according to Mbiti, ATR is a practicing religion (Chapter one, introduction). This is like the British oldest parliamentary democracy but with an unwritten constitution.

Like Christians and Muslims have rosaries, ATR also have cowrie shells, coffee beans, coconuts and beads. But the cowries and beads are used more in fore telling by oracles other than worshiping.

Again, as the Jews observe the Sabbath, the Christians observe Sunday, and Muslims observe Juma or Friday as holidays, Baganda observe the night of the New Moon as a day of peace and resting (olunaku lw’obwerende (according to Dr.M.B.Nsimbi in Tuyige Oluganda, a Luganda language pamphlet for secondary students). This was observed every lunar month. They also revere Wednesday, which they attribute to god Mukasa, as a resting day for gods and most shrines are closed on the day.

Unfortunately, ATR was invaded by Judaism, Christianity and Islam which were superior in all forms. The Bible and the Quran talk about Moses, a Jewish prophet who was attacking Egyptian pharaoh for practicing ATR. According to Moses, the African religion was polytheism.

Church history also shows the early church in North Africa especially Egypt, Nubia and Ethiopia. All those abandoned ATR and embraced Christianity. When Christianity was declared by Emperor Constantine as a state religion in the 4th century A.D., the whole of North Africa, which was under Roman Empire, became Christian, at least in name until it was conquered by Muslims and became Arab. Likewise, East African Coast, and much of West African was also Muslimised. The remaining part in the heart of Africa, was rounded up during the time of slave trade (by Arabs in Eastern Africa) and Europeans in Western and Southern Africa) between 1490 and 1900, and ATR was condemned as a pagan religion.

However, according to Prof. Ali Mazcui (in a clash or civilization, a British Broadcast Corporation’s documentary that was also shown on UTV now UBC TV and WBC, Africans practice two religions; privately she/he practices ATR and publicly Islam or Christianity.

This was exhibited during the five years bush war in Luweero triangle from 1981 to 1986, where even President Yoweri Museveni confessed that his fighters practiced the two. In the state of Benin, West Africa, ATR (Vudu) was declared a state religion, by then president Soglo and many African immigrants in west especially Nigerians practice it in Europe and America.

Traditions have it that before a Catholic is ordained a priest; he is first ordered to ensure that his ancestral background will not disturb him during priesthood. It is also claimed that whenever a Muslim is to perform pilgrimage, he is also ordered to ensure that he does the same so that s/he is not disturbed during pilgrimage. That is a partial recognition of ATR’s power.

CONCLUSION

ATR is represented at the African Council of Religions AND IS RECOGNIZED BY World Council of Religions, under United Nations, but it is yet to be represented at Uganda Inter Religious Council (made up of Roman Catholics, Anglicans, Greek Orthodox, Muslims and Seventh Day Adventists), neither is it represented to lead prayers on national days and occasions as it is the case with Islam and Christianity. As Dr. Mbiti says, ATR made exchanges with other Middle Eastern religions like Judaism, Christianity and Islam, and therefore contributed to their civilization. It should not just be condemned by Crusaders and Mujahideen as a mere pagan religion.

Kateregga Musaazi Ahmed is a post graduate student of Arts-Religion, Peace and Conflict Resolution , Islamic University In Uganda.

Obote with late Indira Gandhi:In 1980,UPC got a lot of textiles from indi which it used during the campaigns!

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Obote with late Indira Gandhi.As a matter of fact, Dr. Obote RIP was visiting India, when his strong man Brig. Oyite Ojok, was killed in a Helicopter crash. By then, David Oyite Ojok was a major general not brigadier.His party was also called congress and Indira Gandhi gave him alot of material supprt.In 1980,the party got alot of textiles from indi which it used during the campaigns! am surprised that even Obote before he was overthrown was trying to do some thing about the Asian “problem” and yet he was friends with the Indian congress party!!!!!

The Uganda Asian problems was not an Indian problem.The Asians were brought to Uganda by the British
through the aegis of the IBEA Company as coolies to work on the Railways.When they reached Uganda,these Asians saw themselves as British subjects.Infact most of them had cut off their relations with India.

Now after Independence,the workforce in Uganda was to be representative of the Ugandan population.The British-Asians like all non indigenous Ugandan African were asked to take up Ugandan citizenship.A good number of them did,others opted to remain British-Asians and held on to their British passports. When the nationalization program started,that is when their orderly repatriation to other British commonwealth countries began.This was around 1968. However when Idi Amin came,he decided to have a precipititious exodus and caused a lot of problems for the British government. Infact the majority of those British-Asians from Uganda were resettled in Canada.They still proudly call themselves Ugandans. As regards to Obote and Indira’ party having contacts,it is more based on the ideology of the two parties. So,you can see why UPC and Congress I in India remained friends.

As a matter of fact, Dr. Obote RIP was visiting India, when his strong man Brig. Oyite Ojok, was killed in a Helicopter crash.

As a matter of fact, Dr. Obote RIP was visiting India, when his strong man Brig. Oyite Ojok, was killed in a Helicopter crash.

2.
Lt Idi Amin receives the sword of honour from the former G.O.C. E.A. Command, Maj Gen. Sir Nigel Tapp at his effendi’s passing out parade. Notice how slim this gentleman was in December 1961.

<br /><p class=Lt Idi Amin receives the sword of honour from the former G.O.C. E.A. Command, Maj Gen. Sir Nigel Tapp at his effendi's passing out parade. Notice how slim this gentleman was in December 1961.” width=”377″ height=”447″ class=”size-full wp-image-1771″ />
Lt Idi Amin receives the sword of honour from the former G.O.C. E.A. Command, Maj Gen. Sir Nigel Tapp at his effendi’s passing out parade. Notice how slim this gentleman was in December 1961.

3.Idi Amin’s Save Britain Fund

Idi Amin's Save Britain Fund

Idi Amin’s Save Britain Fund

Do you know that nobody knows exactly how Ssekabaka Mutesa I looked like?

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Kabaka Mutesa I

Kabaka Mutesa I

Do you know that nobody knows exactly how Ssekabaka Mutesa I looked like? All the images of him are paintings. The first photographs of a Kabaka of Buganda were of Mwanga.

The paintings of Mutesa I were the result of interviews of elderly people during the reign of Daudi Chwa but who had seen Mutesa I. These old people ended up describing a person resembling the Kabaka at the time (i.e Chwa). And Prince Joseph Musanje (who painted them) did not even see Mutesa I because Mutesa I died before Musanje was born.

This is why one can see a resemblance between Mutesa I’s paintings and Daudi Chwa’s photographs. There is, however, no resemblance between the photographs of Mwanga and the paintings of Mutesa I (Mwanga’s father). Further, there is also no resemblance between Mwanga and his son Daudi Chwa. Daudi Chwa’s features were from his mother Evelyn Kulabako “Masombira.”

Deo Kasansula

Bengazi 1977: Amin and Gadaffi walking abt-May Allah Grant them both the highest jannah of All

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LR: Brig Gen Ali Fadhul,Brig Gen Moses Ali and Brig Gen Barnabas Kili 1970s

LR: Brig Gen Ali Fadhul,Brig Gen Moses Ali and Brig Gen Barnabas Kili 1970s

LR: Brig Gen Ali Fadhul,Brig Gen Moses Ali and Brig Gen Barnabas Kili 1970s

MM2

MM3

Bengazi 1977: Amin and Gadaffi-May Allah Grant them the highest jannah of All ..Ameen thuma Amin…
MM4

Ivy League : Nakasero Kampala Lodge Back Terrace 1976 Nnalongo & Ssalongo Amin
MM5

Nnalongo Madina Amin (Abe’Ngonge) & Saba’Ssalongo Idi Amin Dada (Adibu/Okapi) 1975 OAU

Nnalongo Madina Amin (Abe'Ngonge) & Saba'Ssalongo Idi Amin Dada (Adibu/Okapi) 1975 OAU

Nnalongo Madina Amin (Abe’Ngonge) & Saba’Ssalongo Idi Amin Dada (Adibu/Okapi) 1975 OAU

LR: Brig Gen Ali Fadhul,Brig Gen Moses Ali and Brig Gen Barnabas Kili 1970s

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Idi Amin Dada arrives in Kilembe Uganda 1973

Idi Amin Dada arrives in Kilembe Uganda 1973

Idi Amin Dada arrives in Kilembe Uganda 1973

BELL HUEY 1973 Kilembe Kasese Uganda

BELL HUEY 1973 Kilembe Kasese Uganda

BELL HUEY 1973 Kilembe Kasese Uganda

LR: Brig Gen Ali Fadhul,Brig Gen Moses Ali and Brig Gen Barnabas Kili 1970s

LR: Brig Gen Ali Fadhul,Brig Gen Moses Ali and Brig Gen Barnabas Kili 1970s

LR: Brig Gen Ali Fadhul,Brig Gen Moses Ali and Brig Gen Barnabas Kili 1970s

Idi Amin Dada escorted the Gun Carriage currying the Late Kabaka Mutesa II on foot from Bamunanika all the way to Kasubi Tombs 1971 where he Lay the First President of Uganda with Full Honours.And yes, nobody was killed as we saw recently after the kasubi tombs fire

Idi Amin Dada escorted the Gun Carriage currying the Late Kabaka Mutesa II on foot from Bamunanika all the way to Kasubi Tombs 1971 where he Lay the First President of Uganda with Full Honours.And yes, nobody was killed as we saw recently after the kasubi tombs fire

Idi Amin Dada escorted the Gun Carriage currying the Late Kabaka Mutesa II on foot from Bamunanika all the way to Kasubi Tombs 1971 where he Lay the First President of Uganda with Full Honours.And yes, nobody was killed as we saw recently after the kasubi tombs fire

Idi Amin Dada arrives at Kololo airstrip to release political Prisoners 1971

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1974 Documentary

1974 Documentary

1971 Burial Ceremony of Kabaka Mutesa 11

1971 Burial Ceremony of Kabaka Mutesa 11

1971 Burial Ceremony of Kabaka Mutesa 11

Idi Amin Dada arrives at Kololo airstrip to release political Prisoners 1971

Idi Amin Dada arrives at Kololo airstrip to release political Prisoners 1971

Idi Amin Dada arrives at Kololo airstrip to release political Prisoners 1971

Idi Amin Dada visits Khartoum

CORE : Black Power Activist’s visit to Kampala Uganda 1975

CORE : Black Power Activist's visit to Kampala Uganda 1975

CORE : Black Power Activist’s visit to Kampala Uganda 1975

Amin never killed or refrigerated any of the dead bodies of his wives. That was a lie?

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Nnalongo Zaitun Tiko Dimba (Leiko) Kakwa

Nnalongo Zaitun Tiko Dimba (Leiko) Kakwa

Mama Nakooli Bulima (Baisemuwaya) Balamoji

Mama Nakooli Bulima (Baisemuwaya) Balamoji

Mama Nakooli Bulima (Baisemuwaya) Balamoji

Mama Sarah Mutesi Kibedi (Baisemenha)

Mama Sarah Mutesi Kibedi (Baisemenha)

Mama Sarah Mutesi Kibedi (Baisemenha)

Amin may not have refrigerated all the bodies, but it is a well known fact that at his orders, he had the body of Kay Amin dismembered. And that was not the only execution order from the tyrant. The warning was given to Amin’s children after showing them the dismemberd body of their mother. He added ” Bad mothers end up like this…!”

Joseph Kamugisha

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He however displayed Kay Amin’s body cut into pieces on UTV -and he was laughing while doing this – while at the same time warning Ugandans that anybody who played with him would end up the same way. This one os NOT a lie as I personally watched this on tv.

eun Nyaronyango
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Yes Idi Amin did freeze bodies

A Tanzanian friend of mine (Diplomat) was in the room when Idi Amin showed them the French ambassadors head or some thing like that. He actually showed them 3 heads or so.

At Nile mansions.I don’t remember the full story. My Tanzanian friend told me. i.e. Idi Amin called them (Diplomats) and brought out the heads for them to see. he also warned them not to mess with him otherwise they will end up like……….

My is a retired senior Army officer from TPDF. he is now in Japan i.e. has a PHD in Engineering.
JIM MUWANGA

Palestinian terrorists hijacked an Air France jet and forced it to fly to Entebbe, Uganda

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PALPalestinian terrorists hijacked an Air France jet and forced it to fly to Entebbe, Uganda – the first hints of an accommodation between the Amin regime and the Arab rebels. This put both Prime Minister Amin in a difficult position; Amin did not want outsiders in Uganda, fearing that they would cause trouble for his regime; but if he did not permit the Imperial Military to deal with this new problem, he would confirm the allegations, and bring down on his head the very trouble that he hoped to avoid.

He took the only way out that he could see, deliberately misunderstanding the instructions he received. He was supposed to prepare accommodations and briefings for specialist Israeli anti-terrorist troops who were to be on-hand to storm the aircraft if the terrorists made unreasonable demands; instead, he “misheard” this to say that he was to use the Imperial Troops stationed in Uganda (and nominally under his command) to storm the aircraft because the terrorist’s demands were unreasonable.

In theory, most of the hostages would have been rescued had the task been left to the Israeli experts; instead, the B-grade Ugandan military botched the operation appallingly, and all but 3 hostages were killed outright. Prime Minister Amin was suitably apologetic afterwards, blaming the poor state of communications equipment throughout Africa and requesting £735 million to upgrade telecommunications throughout the continent in a programme to be administered by Uganda on behalf of the Empire.

The old terminal building of the Entebbe International Airport as seen from the air.The Israelis had wanted to buy it and turn it into a place of Pilgrimage in memory of "operation Thunderbolt" in which Israeli commandos rescued hostages from there during Amin's regime.Uganda government was reluctant for obvious reasons!!!!The commander of that operation was killed by amin´s soldiers.He was the brother of the current Israeli prime minister.

The old terminal building of the Entebbe International Airport as seen from the air.The Israelis had wanted to buy it and turn it into a place of Pilgrimage in memory of “operation Thunderbolt” in which Israeli commandos rescued hostages from there during Amin’s regime.Uganda government was reluctant for obvious reasons!!!!The commander of that operation was killed by amin´s soldiers.He was the brother of the current Israeli prime minister.

The audacity of this request in a fiscally-restrained climate was breathtaking, and initially it served its purpose of distracting the Imperial Bureaucracy from any investigation of the Entebbe massacre; the proposal won considerable support in a number of quarters, especially France and Germany, whose industries would almost certainly be subcontracted for the job. It fell to “The Whisperer” to raise the red flags and begin the downfall of Amin.

A C-130 Hercules in front of old terminal of Entebbe Airport, after arriving with food and supplies for the Rwandan refugee camps in 1994. Bullet hole damage from the 1976 raid is still visible.

A C-130 Hercules in front of old terminal of Entebbe Airport, after arriving with food and supplies for the Rwandan refugee camps in 1994. Bullet hole damage from the 1976 raid is still visible.

However, some people say that the above is a distorted version.Some thing that still baffles me – There was some sort of conspiracy to allow Idi Amin to live in Saudi Arabia in Exile in relative luxury.
1 Initially he escaped to Libya.
2 Gadaffi got tired of him and sent him to Saudi Arabia.
3 Saudi Arabia with connivance of Western powers allowed him to Live there on condition he makes no public pronouncements
4 Court of Human rights in Hague – in connivance with western powers never brought any human rights abuses charges against Idi Amin though he was responsible for killing 1/2 Million Ugandans.
5. Why did Saudi’s give him exile – It cannot be just because he was a Muslim. The Saudis provide him a safe harbor for more than 20 years and with a monthly stipend of about US$1,400, domestic servants, cooks, drivers, and cars.

PAL4

PAL5

Namugongo ‘martyrs’ were not really martyrs

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'Martyrs' memorial and early converts' No date, with a stamp from the Church Missionary Society in London.

‘Martyrs’ memorial and early converts’ No date, with a stamp from the Church Missionary Society in London.

I have been thinking about the Uganda Christian ‘martyrs’ prosecuted on June 3,1886 at Namugongo and its significance to Uganda as a country after one of the Ugandans raised it on the Ugandan At Heart(UAH) forum. So I asked myself questions like: ”were the Uganda martyrs really deserve to be called ‘martyrs’ or not?”, ” Could Catholics killed for faith be called “martyrs”?”, ” Why did kabaka Mwanga took this decision at the time?”.

Now it is my understanding that within the Buganda culture the execution of the Christian martyrs was both political and religious. It is the Buganda kingdom that invited the first missionaries who arrived in 1877 and the kingdom benefited tremendously from them particularly in developmental projects like schools. So we thank the insight Kabaka Mutesa 1 had at the time to invite these people.

Nevertheless, I’m still puzzled that we continue to call these people ‘martyrs’ due to the fact that they challenged the power structures of the Bugandan culture at the time because of their faith. If we are to go by the Muslims who keep challenging the power and social structure of the western countries because of their faith, then the word ‘martyr’ is not truly applicable to these people.

Muslims or Christians who attempt to do today what these ‘martyrs’ did during Kabaka Mwanga’s reign will feel the wrath of the law and some are even branded terrorists. However, we should not forget that those who die in this way in places like the Middle East are still branded as ‘martyrs’ by some Islamic factions. In Bugandan culture, which the kabaka (leader of Buganda) represents, the kabaka ruled with great authority, and to refuse anything he asked was not only to offend the kabaka but to dishonour the entire Bugandan kingdom. Mwanga perceived that Christians were a challenge to his political power, since Christian pages were not honouring and were taught not to honour their obligation to obey him. If we are to continue to call these Christians killed at Namugongo martyrs, then we have got a lot of martyrs now in Uganda.

Second, it is important at the outset to realize that the persecution of Christians in Uganda was not the norm. There were relatively few Christians actually killed for religious reasons compared to the large number of Christian Baganda. So I don’t think Kabaka Mwanga set out to kill Christians as in Christians or Protestants as in Protestants.

Third, all of the martyrs were Bugandan natives converted through the missionary efforts of British Anglicans and French Catholics. Thus, their lives and deaths were embedded from start to finish in a culture they were familiar with and understood; they were not killed due to a lack of cultural knowledge or a “foreigner’s mistake.” A man like Joseph Mukasa was the personal servant of the kabaka who oversaw all of the kabaka’s pages. He knew what he was getting himself into by confronting kabaka Mwanga over murder of Anglican Bishop Hannington. Mukasa told Mwanga “bluntly” that his ordering of the death of Hannington was wrong; this angered Mwanga, and Mwanga took Mukasa’s outbursts as a form of treason. Mukasa knew the drill about Buganda cultures at the time very well. To disagree with the Kabaka was not uncommon in Buganda but Mukasa’s assertive confronting of Mwanga was unique. The Kabakas used to allow passive forms of resistance and there were effective.

In addition, Mwanga chose Namugongo as a spot to execute these people because to die at Namugongo made one an enemy of the Buganda state. Namugongo was an equivalent of the England’s “Tower Hill.”

What is again more disturbing is how these Baganda natives who converted to Christianity ended up dying on the same fire for the cause of Christ in the midst of the Christian factions of Buganda. The church was divided at the time and it needed these people more alive than dead at the time. Before these ‘martyrs’ were killed, some people working under Kabaka Mwanga offered them a chance to run away but these guys decided not to -basically because they wanted to die for Christ.

Furthermore, a total of 32 baganda including the leader of the Christian ‘rebels’ called Charles Lwanga were killed- 13 of those were Catholics, 9 were protestants and 10 were unbelievers (who had been awaiting execution for non-religious crimes) but even the non-believers killed the day are counted as martyrs.

If we really still want to remember these political rebels as ‘martyrs’, let us do what Robert Royal did by publishing a remarkable new book in 2000 which he called ”The Catholic Martyrs of the Twentieth Century: A Comprehensive World History”, instead of people flocking to Namugongo every year. Much of Royal’s research is new. The project began with a sentence in one of Pope John Paul II’s encyclicals. He said that the martyrs of our century “should not be forgotten.” A group of parishioners at Saint Aloysius Parish in New Canaan, Conn, took the words seriously, and began to accumulate materials. The word spread and materials started coming in from around the world. What began as a simple list became an amazing archive. With the help of his brother who is a priest, Royal began the work of putting the results in book form.

With due respect to my non-Muslim friends, I don’t think we should continue to call the 1886 Namugongo religious people ‘martys’ in the sense of the word in relation to the present events happening in the world. However, I’m happy to say that Buganda kingdom has changed greatly since that time. There is a lot of religious freedom. Catholics, Protestants, Christians and Muslims can all interact within the kingship of Buganda without any problem. It is more reason for Ugandans to support this kingdom that is not afraid of changes that make it stronger. What Kabaka Mwanga did at that time is inexcusable but at least we all learnt from it but most importantly we understand why he did it.

Abbey Kibirige Semuwemba
United Kingdom

http://semuwemba.com/2008/11/25/namugongo-martyrs-were-not-really-martyrs/

Shilling was introduced as a unit of currency in British-controlled areas of East Africa in 1921

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Shilling was introduced as a unit of currency in British-controlled areas of East Africa in 1921. It replaced the East-African-based Rupee which was in circulation between 1906 – 1920. Prior to 1906, the Indian Rupee was used as the unit of currency.
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2.this was a simoni 50 cents I believe.This particular one is a silver coin. The shilling & half-shilling coins were minted in cupronickel after 1948
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3.10 CENT WAS CALLED tombola koja in Swahili
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4. stamps
stamps

He reigned from 1910 - 1936.

He reigned from 1910 – 1936.

The construction of the railway in the 1890s from Kenya to Uganda was hindered by several factors including hostile natives, marauding lions, rough terrain and diseases.

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Construction of the railway line from Soroti to Lira District. The construction of the railway in the 1890s from Kenya to Uganda was hindered by several factors including hostile natives, marauding lions, rough terrain and diseases.

Construction of the railway line from Soroti to Lira District. The construction of the railway in the 1890s from Kenya to Uganda was hindered by several factors including hostile natives, marauding lions, rough terrain and diseases.

In Summary

Full steam ahead. The Uganda Railway had a dark side to it, with the deaths of thousands of Indian and African labourers but few developments can be said to have changed the region’s history more.

The original plan for the Uganda Railway was to have it cut through the interior all the way to Kampala but it would not be until 1930, three decades after most of it was fully constructed, that it did.

This fact probably helps explain the underlying reason for the construction of the railway. While the British were optimistic about commercial opportunities in the hinterland, their primary interest was to secure their hold on the source of the River Nile and the entire Nile Valley up to Egypt.

“It might have opened Kenya and Uganda to commerce, but that was merely a dividend to the interests of the British military in securing a line of supply to Egypt and the Nile,” writes Reuben Ellis in Vertical Margins: Mountaineering and the Landscapes of Neo-colonialism.

But fate has a funny way of changing history. Could the depot that was set up in Nairobi – which went on to become the biggest city in East Africa – have been built if the railway project had not been delayed by disease, desertions, tough terrain and man-eating lions?

In any case, by the time the railway arrived in Kisumu in 1901, the British had decided to change its route and have it terminate on the shores of Lake Victoria where a steamship would be built instead.

The decision to alter the plans was both political, from a hostile British society, and economic, from early white settlers in Kenya who preferred to have feeder lines built to support their fledging enterprises instead of extending the line to Uganda.

The white settlers, who later joined the Kenya Legislative Assembly, continued to complain about the Uganda extension when it was eventually built despite, according to historian Jan Elmert Jorgensen, that extension helping subsidise the low freight rates they enjoyed and the feeder lines they rode to their farms.

However, the impressive early production of cotton by peasants in Uganda, whose revenues far outstripped those of the white settlers and their plantation farms in Kenya, provided an economic incentive for the line to be extended into Uganda later.

In the interim, tracks were laid from Port Bell in Kampala into the city, allowing, with the help of a steamer ship in between, a train ride all the way to Mombasa.

It was not until the end of the First World War that the original railway line would be completed through Nakuru to Kampala. Extensions would be built from Tororo to Soroti in 1929, Kampala to Kasese in 1956 and Arua in 1964.
While the Uganda Railway cost the British government £5.3 million (about Shs21 billion) to construct, the evidence shows that this was, in reality an export subsidy, rather than a capital investment that wouldn’t look out of place with some donor projects today.

Of the £5.3m, some £2.3m was spent in Britain on rails and locomotives; under £1m in India on rolling stock and recruiting labour; under £0.2m in the United States on locomotives while British firms got the contracts, naturally, to ship in the materials.

The extension of the railway dramatically changed the trade environment in the region. In Mombasa, where the railway had first been built, trade through the Kilindini Harbour grew from £1.6 million in 1908-9 to £3.7 million in 1911-12, according to traveller and historian Norman Maclean.

“And the journey which cost the early missionaries and explorers three or four months of incredible hardships and peril, can now be done in less than forty-eight hours,” he noted.

Apart from Nairobi, other towns where the train had terminals, like Kisumu, Eldoret, Jinja and Nakuru, also saw an overnight growth in trading activity and population on the back of the train.

Trade in and out of Uganda had previously been restricted to high-value items such as ivory owing to the high cost of porterage by caravan and horse-drawn carriage to the coast.

Transport costs drop
The cost of transporting a tonne of goods from Kampala to Mombasa before the railway, had been estimated at between £130 and £300 yet export items like coffee were fetching around £70-90 per tonne on the world markets.
This all changed after the completion. “It was the railway which allowed Uganda to be integrated into the world economy as a producer of staples by cutting the Kisumu-Mombasa transport cost to £2.40 per tonne and the Kampala-Kisumu-Mombasa transport time from three months to six days,” Jorgensen notes.

The railways also allowed for everyday items like clothing, household goods etc to become more widespread and accessible to farmers who were cashing in on the cash crop trade.

The access to the coast and to the rest of the world would, in time, allow for changes in the politics, too.
But the story of the railway had a dark, bloody side. The man-eating lions of Tsavo had, by the time of their being shot dead by Patterson, killed 28 Indian coolies and an estimated 135 African labourers (the Africans were considered not important enough for an accurate count or record to be kept).

When the final count was done, out of the 31,983 Indian workers who had come to East Africa to work on the railway, 2,493 died while 6,454 were invalided back home notes J.S Mangat in ‘A History of the Asians in East Africa.’
It was, however, the 6,724 Indians who took up the offer to stay in East Africa after their work on the railway was done that would go on to change the history of the region and that of Uganda.

They were not the first Indians in the region or in Uganda and they were not the most pioneering or enterprising but they helped create a critical mass that would have long-term social, political and economic consequences.

editorial@ug.nationmedia.com

2.Building of East African Railway

Building of East African Railway

Building of East African Railway

3.current state of Uganda’s railway system

jinja

jinja

busembatya

busembatya

Jinja station

Jinja station

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jinja

Railway station at Namasagali where from people took the ferry….. 1950s?

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Railway station at Namasagali where from people took the ferry….. 1950s?

Railway station at Namasagali where from people took the ferry..... 1950s?

Railway station at Namasagali where from people took the ferry….. 1950s?

2.And the senior staff who built it … Ramsay and PearceNicholson (kneeling) with Senior Staff
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3.Little history on jinja Uganda .Jinja Bridge in the late 1950s by which time the roadway had been removed. After the construction of Owen Falls Dam a mile or so downstream a roadway was constructed on top of the dam
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4.Picture from 1930 …Namasagali ….Palango, the medicine man,on board a ship at Namasagali in 1930
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5.Ferry from Namasagali.Third class passengers traveled on lighters pushed ahead of the stern wheelers
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6.nama

The most pathetic thing is for a slave who doesn’t know that he is a slave – Malcolm X.

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Monument to slaves in Zanzibar:From colonial slavery to Black-Black slavery

Monument to slaves in Zanzibar:From colonial slavery to Black-Black slavery

Germans were held accountable for the holocaust but here the Africans were enslaved by the Arabs who were the chief handlers and the buyers were mainly the Portuguese and the Spanish and to lesser extent other Europeans.The West African Africans were captured by North and West African Arabs while the East African Africans were mainly sold by Arabs from the North and Saudi/Muscat/Oman area. How should we go after them and sue all these people? The Mau Mau case is a good example where they have been successful in suing the British Government.

Jews were compensated,will Africans ever be compensated???? Jews have the control of media and so they can constantly remind the world of the holocaust and demand subsequent compensation. How can we as Africans lay the strategy to dominate the media? How many newspapers in USA, UK, France, Sweden, e.t.c are owned by Africans or Blacks?

Images taken by colonial Masters of various aspect of African Lives.From archives of BBC History.Until lions tell their tale, the story of the hunt will always glorify the hunter.

Images taken by colonial Masters of various aspect of African Lives.From archives of BBC History.Until lions tell their tale, the story of the hunt will always glorify the hunter.

slaves were sent to America and were also sent to the British colonies in the West Indies and Spanish held colonies in Cuba and South America. There was a vast network of buyers and handlers both in East Africa , South Central Africa and West Africa. There were many many people responsible for the plight of the Africans. The questions I’m asking is who or better still, how do do you go about suing anyone? Is it worth suing anyone when there is now black-black slavery in our countries?

Jews were compensated around 1.5 billion dollars. This was a token amount to gain acknowledgement from Germany for Nazi atrocities. The idea was to shame them on the world stage. However they lost close to 6 billions in pilferaged properties and tangible assets they left behind. This was never accounted for by Germany as part of reparation.

The slaves were taken to America, the West Indies and South America by the slave traders because there was a huge demand for them. The sale of the slaves were advertised in various newspapers and were auctioned off to the highest bidders. Not all Americans were rich and not all could afford to own slaves but who do we sue in USA? Where do we start?. It wasn’t so much as greed but there was an acute shortage of labor to work the vast farms. The first slaves were ‘imported’ to work on the huge Virginian tobacco farms and as more and more colonies joined the Union, the need for man power increased and immoral trade of human trafficking increased. It was a profitable business for the handlers and there was no shortage of ship load of human cargo arriving everyday to be sold off.

Blacks that were taken as slaves are still treated in some countries as 2nd class citizens. Besides Americans, the Portuguese in Brazil where millions and millions of Black Brazilians live to this day in impoverished condition at the bottom of the social rung. They are like second class citizens in Brazil. In USA and Brazil there were laws passed by the govts to keep blacks in slavery and to deny them human rights.

You have to read the history of African-Americans in USA who FOR OVER 400 YEARS were subject to various laws to keep them oppressed such as BLACK CODE, JIM CROW LAWS. They were not allowed basic human rights such as meals on the counter with whites, barriers in hotel rooms, DISCRIMINATION on means of transportation last but not least no admission to white schools BY LAW.. For the first time in 1964 they were allowed to vote in the election, a law passed by President Johnson.Civil Right laws were passed in 1965 thus removing all forms of racial barriers.
So the govts were responsible for the slavery of blacks. If these laws were not passed then the history of Blacks would have been quite different from the one they suffered over 400 years.slaves2

EKIWANDIKO KINO KISASANYIZIBWE MU BAGANDA

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EKIWANDIKO KINO KISASANYIZIBWE MU BAGANDA
Michael kintu nga akwasibwa obwa katikilo mu 1952 yalayira okugoba obufuzi bwo mungereza kutaka lya Buganda. Mu 1961 omulimu gwe yagutukiriza omungereza yamugoba mubufuzi bwa Buganda yadde nga omungereza ya kozesa abaganda ba Abu bakali Mayanja naleta Obote naye ekyo tekijjawo buwanguzi Michael Kintu bweyatusa ku Buganda kati obuwanguzi Michael Kintu bweyatusa kuBuganda tulina okudayo okubugoberera nga tukola bino.

Okusomesa abaganda nga tuba sindikira obubaka ku masimu obugamba nti Buganda nsiyaffe abaganda abalina ebika era buli muntu yena atalina kika azimbye oba akoledde ekintu kyona kutaka lyaffe mumenyiwa tteka lya Buganda eligamba nti ettaka lya Buganda teligurwa, telyazikibwa abaganda tulina obuvunanyizibwa okujja buli kintu kyona abagwira kyebatadde kuttaka lyaffe. Buli kyalo kilina okulaba nga abagwira abazimbye kubyalo byaffe bagobwako abo ababa baganyi balina okwokyebwa. Kunkola Michael Kintu gyeyeya mbisa okugoba abangereza yagamba nti abaganda tebaddamu kutunda mwanyi na pamba mu bayindi oyo yena anagana ogoberera etteka elyo ebintu bye byona byokyebwe. Enkola ya Michael Kintu eno gyetulina okugoberera okwegobako obuffuzi bwo bumbula ffe kenyini abaganda bwetwetaddemu olwo bulagajjavu.

Kasozi Mukasa

Kanzu was already prominent in Buganda by 1925

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KANZU

This must have been around 1925. That kanzu robe had become more prominent, after being introduced by Arab traders, and worn along with the European coat. The lorry here is more modern than others that dominated the scene in 1920.

This must have been around 1925. That kanzu robe had become more prominent, after being introduced by Arab traders, and worn along with the European coat. The lorry here is more modern than others that dominated the scene in 1920.

Initially the kanzu was imported and was made from either cotton or linen, a combination of reasons that kept it out of reach of the majority. But as time passed, it began trickling down to ordinary Baganda. The men began making the kanzu from barkcloth, the traditional clothing material used then.

With time, they began making it from cheaper fabrics like silk and poplin, which was brought in by Indian and Arab traders. Today the kanzu is made from silk, cotton, poplin and linen. Linen kanzus are the most expensive. While adopting the kanzu, the Baganda made some changes to its design, making their version
different from all the other tunics worn around the world, especially those from its parent design from Arabia.This outfit originally was introduced by Arabs. The most significant addition to the kanzu by the Baganda was the embroidery added around the collar, abdomen and the sleeves. This embroidery, called ‘Omulela’, is unique to the Uganda kanzu and it is hand sewn.

In the 1930s and 1940s, the Baganda also added the tradition of wearing a coat atop the kanzu. By picking the blazer from the dress culture of the Europeans, who were the colonial power then the Baganda created a hybrid of Arabian and British dress code. The kanzu in Uganda today is worn in many areas complete with a coat, save for the Muslims who prefer to keep it as plain as the Arabs. However, some Muslims add a tarboosh on the head.

Tarboosh or ‘Entalabusi’ is mainly worn in Turkey and Morocco. However, Tarboosh (head cap) is not an Islamic requirement for men to wear. It is due to specific countries traditions and practice..

As Buganda’s culture spread to other areas of Uganda, the kanzu spread with it and could rightly be the ‘the unofficial national dress of Ugandan men’.Buganda folks have sort of created a hybrid from Colonial dress and Arabic version.The outfit is certainly Arabic in its origin.

So, basically Kanzu is a traditional dress of Buganda people and not Uganda although popular in many districts.

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When a gomesi is really a knock-out, the expression these days is that it is “gomesi kiboko!”

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Irene Drusilla Namaganda was born in 1896.Irene Drusilla Namaganda became the Nnabagereka (Queen) when she married King Chwa II. After his death she was the Queen Mother (Namasole) of her son King Mutesa II. The title of Nabagereka was new, created by Chwa II. Previously the wife of the King was called the Kaddulubaale. The Kaddulubaale had no official role, the First Lady was the Lubuga, a sister of the King. The Namasole was, however, a powerful person at court from ancient times.

Sanyu is wearing a suuka, the traditional dress of a maiden. It was an ankle length backcloth (later a length of cotton) wrapped around the body and belted at the waist. At the request of the headmistress of Gayaza High sch, a Goan tailor named Gomes modified the suuka to create a school uniform for Gayaza. By adding sleeves to the suuka the elegant robe recently some people(Otto Patrick & Co) dont want to call it a Kiganda dress- was invented. It was thus called the Gomesi, or the ” boarding” (after boarding school) or busuuti (the name of the robe worn by male VIPs over their kanzu).

I am sure Namasole is Queen Mother. The role of Namasole was really given its greatest focus when Mutesa I’s mother died. Alex Mackay was asked to make a coffin for her. The first coffin in Uganda’s history is said to have been that of Mutesa’s mother. Mutesa had asked Mackay what arrangements were made in royal burials the UK. Mackay’s explanation of Westminster Abbey arrangements led to Mutesa to ask Mackay to make a coffin for his mother and the Baganda royal builders to erect Kasubi Tombs to equal Westminster Abbey in stature and grandeur.
GOMESI

The gomesi is composed of about six layers of fabric on top of another two layers of striped undergarments, all of which is quite sweaty when worn in equatorial sunshine. There are folds and flaps, buttons, a giant belt, and tall, pointy shoulders. I’m told that some ladies put extra layers as padding beneath everything to accentuate the size of their posterior.

When a gomesi is really a knock-out, the expression these days is that it is “gomesi kiboko!”The stripped under garment is called “Kikoyi.”The accentuated posterior is necessary for shaking the hips for the traditional dance”NGOMA” or ‘AGALIBA ENJOLE’. Sexy? yes Sir!!!

There are many variations to the origins of the Gomesi. One such is that the Gomesi existed long before the missionaries and Indians came to Uganda, however, the missionaries introduced the use of cotton instead of the bark cloth, from which the Gomesi was originally made. When the Indians came to Uganda, they added the various fabrics from satin/silk blends and the vibrant colors to the traditional attire.Mr Gomes, an Indian tailor had designed the dress for a Royal Buganda member, and it took on his name. The same indian was hired to design uniforms for Gayaza high sch.GOMESI2

According to some scholars, the first Gomesi were made for schoolgirls in Gayaza, Uganda in the 1940s and 1950s. The Christian missionaries who ran the school hired Indian tailors to design the dress. Traditional Ugandan clothing was made from barkcloth. The Gomesi designed by Indian tailors was made from cotton fabric. The Baganda were the first nationality to wear the Gomesi. Today the Gomesi is the Kiganda traditional dress for women and is also worn by other ethnicities in Uganda.gomesi

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The adoption started with the Buganda before moving to Busoga, West Nile and Teso and now almost the entire country. The two garments are what could be called Uganda’s signature dress. Gomesi and Kanzu.

Epiphany Homily Speech By Pope Benedict XVI

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Dear Brothers and Sisters,

For the Church which believes and prays, the Wise Men from the East who, guided by the star, made their way to the manger of Bethlehem are only the beginning of a great procession which winds throughout history. Thus the liturgy reads the Gospel which relates the journey of the Wise Men, together with the magnificent prophetic visions of the sixtieth chapter of the Book of Isaiah and Psalm 71, which depict in bold imagery the pilgrimage of the peoples to Jerusalem. Like the shepherds, who as the first visitors to the newborn Child in the manger, embodied the poor of Israel and more generally those humble souls who live in deep interior closeness to Jesus, so the men from the East embody the world of the peoples, the Church of the Gentiles – the men and women who in every age set out on the way which leads to the Child of Bethlehem, to offer him homage as the Son of God and to bow down before him. The Church calls this feast “Epiphany” – the appearance of the Godhead. If we consider the fact that from the very beginning men and women of every place, of every continent, of all the different cultures, mentalities and lifestyles, have been on the way to Christ, then we can truly say that this pilgrimage and this encounter with God in the form of a Child is an epiphany of God’s goodness and loving kindness for humanity (cf. Tit 3:4).

Following a tradition begun by Pope John Paul II, we celebrate the feast of the Epiphany of the Lord also as the day when episcopal ordination will be conferred on four priests who will now cooperate in different ways in the ministry of the Pope for the unity of the one Church of Jesus Christ in the multiplicity of the Particular Churches. The connection between this episcopal ordination and the theme of the pilgrimage of the peoples to Jesus Christ is evident. It is the task of the Bishop in this pilgrimage not merely to walk beside the others, but to go before them, showing the way. But in this liturgy I would like to reflect with you on a more concrete question. Based on the account of Matthew, we can gain a certain idea of what sort of men these were, who followed the sign of the star and set off to find that King who would establish not only for Israel but for all mankind a new kind of kingship. What kind of men were they? And we can also ask whether, despite the difference of times and tasks, we can glimpse in them something of what a Bishop is and how he is to carry out his task.

These men who set out towards the unknown were, in any event, men with a restless heart. Men driven by a restless quest for God and the salvation of the world. They were filled with expectation, not satisfied with their secure income and their respectable place in society. They were looking for something greater. They were no doubt learned men, quite knowledgeable about the heavens and probably possessed of a fine philosophical formation. But they desired more than simply knowledge about things. They wanted above all else to know what is essential. They wanted to know how we succeed in being human. And therefore they wanted to know if God exists, and where and how he exists. Whether he is concerned about us and how we can encounter him. Nor did they want just to know. They wanted to understand the truth about ourselves and about God and the world. Their outward pilgrimage was an expression of their inward journey, the inner pilgrimage of their hearts. They were men who sought God and were ultimately on the way towards him. They were seekers after God.

Here we come to the question: What sort of man must he be, upon whom hands are laid in episcopal ordination in the Church of Jesus Christ? We can say that he must above all be a man concerned for God, for only then will he also be truly concerned about men. Inversely, we could also say that a Bishop must be a man concerned for others, one who is concerned about what happens to them. He must be a man for others. But he can only truly be so if he is a man seized by God, if concern for God has also become for him concern for God’s creature who is man. Like the Wise Men from the East, a Bishop must not be someone who merely does his job and is content with that. No, he must be gripped by God’s concern for men and women. He must in some way think and feel with God. Human beings have an innate restlessness for God, but this restlessness is a participation in God’s own restlessness for us. Since God is concerned about us, he follows us even to the crib, even to the Cross. “Thou with weary steps hast sought me, crucified hast dearly bought me, may thy pains not be in vain”, the Church prays in the Dies Irae. The restlessness of men for God and hence the restlessness of God for men must unsettle the Bishop. This is what we mean when we say that, above all else, the Bishop must be a man of faith. For faith is nothing less than being interiorly seized by God, something which guides us along the pathways of life. Faith draws us into a state of being seized by the restlessness of God and it makes us pilgrims who are on an inner journey towards the true King of the world and his promise of justice, truth and love. On this pilgrimage the Bishop must go ahead, he must be the guide pointing out to men and women the way to faith, hope and love.

Faith’s inner pilgrimage towards God occurs above all in prayer. Saint Augustine once said that prayer is ultimately nothing more than the realization and radicalization of our yearning for God. Instead of “yearning”, we could also translate the word as “restlessness” and say that prayer would detach us from our false security, from our being enclosed within material and visible realities, and would give us a restlessness for God and thus an openness to and concern for one another. The Bishop, as a pilgrim of God, must be above all a man of prayer. He must live be in constant inner contact with God; his soul must be open wide to God. He must bring before God his own needs and the needs of others, as well as his joys and the joys of others, and thus in his own way establish contact between God and the world in communion with Christ, so that Christ’s light can shine in the world.

Let us return to the Wise Men from the East. These were also, and above all, men of courage, the courage and humility born of faith. Courage was needed to grasp the meaning of the star as a sign to set out, to go forth – towards the unknown, the uncertain, on paths filled with hidden dangers. We can imagine that their decision was met with derision: the scorn of those realists who could only mock the reveries of such men. Anyone who took off on the basis of such uncertain promises, risking everything, could only appear ridiculous. But for these men, inwardly seized by God, the way which he pointed out was more important than what other people thought. For them, seeking the truth meant more than the taunts of the world, so apparently clever.

How can we not think, in this context, of the task of a Bishop in our own time? The humility of faith, of sharing the faith of the Church of every age, will constantly be in conflict with the prevailing wisdom of those who cling to what seems certain. Anyone who lives and proclaims the faith of the Church is on many points out of step with the prevalent way of thinking, even in our own day. Today’s regnant agnosticism has its own dogmas and is extremely intolerant regarding anything that would question it and the criteria it employs. Therefore the courage to contradict the prevailing mindset is particularly urgent for a Bishop today. He must be courageous. And this courage or forcefulness does not consist in striking out or in acting aggressively, but rather in allowing oneself to be struck and to be steadfast before the principles of the prevalent way of thinking. The courage to stand firm in the truth is unavoidably demanded of those whom the Lord sends like sheep among wolves. “Those who fear the Lord will not be timid”, says the Book of Sirach (34:16). The fear of God frees us from the fear of men. It liberates.

Here I am reminded of an episode at the very beginning of Christianity which Saint Luke recounts in the Acts of the Apostles. After the speech of Gamaliel, who advised against violence in dealing with the earliest community of believers in Jesus, the Sanhedrin summoned the Apostles and had them flogged. It then forbade them from preaching in the name of Jesus and set them free. SaintLuke continues: “As they left the council, they rejoiced that they were considered worthy to suffer dishonour for the name of Jesus. And every day… they did not cease to teach and proclaim Jesus as the Messiah” (Acts 5:40ff.). The successors of the Apostles must also expect to be repeatedly beaten, by contemporary methods, if they continue to proclaim the Gospel of Jesus Christ in a way that can be heard and understood. Then they can rejoice that they have been considered worthy of suffering for him. Like the Apostles, we naturally want to convince people and in this sense to obtain their approval. Naturally, we are not provocative; on the contrary we invite all to enter into the joy of that truth which shows us the way. The approval of the prevailing wisdom, however, is not the criterion to which we submit. Our criterion is the Lord himself. If we defend his cause, we will constantly gain others to the way of the Gospel. But, inevitably, we will also be beaten by those who live lives opposed to the Gospel, and then we can be grateful for having been judged worthy to share in the passion of Christ.

The Wise Men followed the star, and thus came to Jesus, to the great Light which enlightens everyone coming into this world (cf. Jn 1:9). As pilgrims of faith, the Wise Men themselves became stars shining in the firmament of history and they show us the way. The saints are God’s true constellations, which light up the nights of this world, serving as our guides. Saint Paul, in his Letter to the Philippians, told his faithful that they must shine like stars in the world (cf. 2:15).

Dear friends, this holds true for us too. It holds true above all for you who are now to be ordained Bishops of the Church of Jesus Christ. If you live with Christ, bound to him anew in this sacrament, then you too will become wise men. Then you will become stars which go before men and women, pointing out to them the right path in life. All of us here are now praying for you, that the Lord may fill you with the light of faith and love. That that restlessness of God for man may seize you, so that all may experience his closeness and receive the gift of his joy. We are praying for you, that the Lord may always grant you the courage and humility of faith. We ask Mary, who showed to the Wise Men the new King of the world (cf. Mt 2:11), as a loving mother, to show Jesus Christ also to you and to help you to be guides along the way which leads to him.

Amen.

During the 1966 attack on the palace, Mutesa 2 sought refuge at the Rubaga Cathedral

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CATThis is the Rubaga Cathedral-The seat of the Roman catholic church in uganda.During the 1966 attack on the palace,the late King Mutesa sought refuge at the Cathedral and the priests hid him there for a while before his exile to the UK.At One Time Archbishop Cabana(A Canadian) was the Archbishop of Rubaga. Sister Rachel, One of the Canadian Nuns Now Living in Montreal-Canada, was also a Nun there.Rachel later run a school in northern Uganda.She is such a great personality. She dared the Kony rebels when she pleaded for the release of the girls that had been abducted from that school and asked them to kill her in exchange for the release of the girls.

2.In our first instalment of the series on the last days of the Kabaka in England, Apollo Makubuya, Baganda’s current Attorney General, writes about the struggles the king went through during his exile in England.

Beyond the controversy surrounding his death, little is known or written about Sir Edward Muteesa’s struggle to survive in the UK from 1966 to 1969. This piece is written in memory of one of Uganda’s most unsung heroes – born on November 19, 1924 and died on November 24, 1969. It uncovers the treachery, intrigue and the diplomatic scandals surrounding what the British bureaucrats called the “Muteesa problem”. It ponders the lessons from Obote’s attack on the Lubiri and Muteesa’s defiance of political blackmail and oppression.

When Sir Edward Muteesa (Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire (KBE) and Uganda’s first Commander-in-Chief and President), jumped over the wall of the Lubiri and walked hundreds of miles to escape Obote’s killers, he did not know what lay in store for him. A new insight, based on historical documents and accounts from family and friends, portrays another dimension on his life in exile in the UK – a life that was as wretched as it was inspirational.

The struggle to settle in England
Far from the grandeur of his palaces and the splendour of the State House, Muteesa, together with his guards Maj. Katende and George Malo, had to settle for a very small one-bedroom flat in Bermondsey in a neighborhood called Rotherhithe. This was kindly offered by a friend – as they had no money at all to rent a better shelter. Other friends, like Major Richard Carr-Gomm, Lord Boyd of Merton, Captain Ronnie Owen and his Solicitor Martin Flegg, set up a small trust of about £789 for his upkeep. Once this fund run out, he had to apply to Her Majesty’s Government (HMG) for unemployment benefits (the dole). He got £ 8.1s a week while his guard, Mr. Katende, got £7. 6s a week. On this, they survived from hand to mouth and sometimes on a diet of tea and biscuits. Some Baganda individuals like one Mr. Iga occasionally supported. Many were scared to be associated with Muteesa for fear of what Obote would do.

To maintain the benefits from HMG, Muteesa and his guards were required to declare any gifts donated by friends including birthday presents. Muteesa relied on the kindness of his friends to pay school fees for his children. Employment in the army, where he was a Lt. Colonel with the Grenadier Guards, was declined or frustrated by the British Government. His pension from the civil contingency fund was not paid. According to the UK Ministry of Social Security no “suitable” employment was available.

Living in exile takes its toll
The British bureaucrats felt that the only possibility for employment was “if he undertook agricultural or forestry training”.

In the early days of exile, his movements were mostly restricted to his flat – for fear of being abducted by Obote’s men. So bleak was his condition that, at a meeting with the Secretary of State on May 10, 1968, Lord Boyd said that Sir Edward had had a mental break down and was suffering from delusions. Lord Boyd described his plight as “pathetic”. Of course, his mental state was not always like that. On many occasions he was jolly, notwithstanding his new circumstances.

Almost overnight, Muteesa had become a diplomatic nightmare and a thorn in HMG’s side. On top of their troubles with Ian D. smith in Rhodesia, Julius K. Nyerere in Tanzania, and Kenneth Kaunda in Zambia, the British Government was keen not to annoy Obote and his new Government. Yet at the same time, it was also under considerable pressure from Muteesa’s influential British friends to take good care of him. In the event, HMG chose to abandon Muteesa and support Obote.

It thus accepted Muteesa as a private citizen and not a political refugee. It refused to have any official dealing with him. This was regardless of the fact that Obote had violently abrogated Uganda’s independence Constitution and had the blood of many Ugandans on his hands following the attack on Muteesa’s palace on the cold night of May 24, 1966.

A memo from 10 Downing Street dated February 6, 1967 shows that the British Prime Minister, Harold Wilson, agreed with the Commonwealth Secretary that “any overt grant to the Kabaka could be politically embarrassing”. And, while the Prime Minister pondered discreet support from “secret funds”, this was rejected because his bureaucrats felt that “HMG had no moral or legal obligation to assist Muteesa”. Also, because they felt that “while the risks of detection would be slight, there was just a possibility that the Ugandans might guess the truth and this would seriously damage our relations with them”.

Thus HMG gave Muteesa no more financial assistance than it would to any other “destitute resident”.

How HMG felt about the king
HMG’s position on Muteesa is best captured in a memo of June 24, 1968, authored by R. G. Tallboys of the Commonwealth Office (East Africa Department) to Mr Scott. It stated that -
“If we are ever going to be rid of the Muteesa problem, other than simply waiting for him to go away, there are two lines of approach we should adopt. One is to use his friends and sympathisers in this country as a channel for putting heavier pressure on Muteesa to accept the Uganda conditions, rather than having these friends serve as their main purpose to channel to us tales of woe about Muteesa’s circumstances. The situation is :- (a) His family have been generously treated by the Uganda Government. (b) He has been given assistance by HMG in the form of social benefits. (c) he has assets in Uganda that can be sold. (d) He can almost certainly obtain access to the proceeds, or some of the proceeds, of these assets if he accepts the reality of political conditions in Uganda. (e) There is no case whatever for HMG to do more for him than has and is being done. The second thing is, without waiting for Mutesa to agree to the Uganda conditions, to encourage the realisation of his land in Uganda…I am writing to Peter Foster suggesting that Muteesa’s land should be sold without waiting for prior approval to the effect that the proceeds can be transferred…Once there is cash in the bank it may be easier to get both Muteesa’s agreement to Obote’s conditions and/or to get Obote to agree to remission of some of the money – even if only interest earned. Muteesa is not a destitute in the sense that he has no assets – his financial difficulties here are no more than the cost of his personal vanity and pride.”

The position of Uganda’s government on Muteesa – and that of Obote, in particular, was always clear. In his autobiography entitled The Desecration of My Kingdom, Muteesa wrote that by 1966 “Obote has already put me as President squarely in his sights and having obtained the range by mere pointing out at me publicly, he is now pressing firmly at the trigger”.

The hate and venom poured on Buganda and Muteesa by Obote and his UPC colleagues in the post-1966 period is available for all to see in the Hansards of the National Assembly.

In short, for Obote and his friends, Muteesa needed to be cut down to size. Now that he had escaped with his life, Muteesa needed to be starved of funds so that he could succumb – either privately or publically – to acknowledge the established state of affairs in Uganda.

Somehow, the British played along and pressured Muteesa to accept these conditions in total disregard of their (il)legality, morality or even implications on the long standing relationship they had with the kingdom and people of Buganda since 1894.

The Baganda were able to see through this although they could do little because of the fear instilled in them by the emergency laws and Obote’s brutal terror machine in Buganda. But in a brave open-letter to the British Prime Minister dated May 21, 1968, some six Baganda students, including Y. Nsambu, Joseph Male, M. Nansamba, and S. Nansamba, protested the actions of Obote and HMG government.

They stated that “the British Government has now joined hands with the Uganda authorities in holding the Kabaka as a hostage until His Highness surrenders”.

How the kingdom came to be abolished
Sam Odaka, Uganda’s Minister for foreign Affairs at the time, set the conditions for the amelioration of Muteesa’s plight.

He declared that the Government of Uganda was prepared to consider any proposal to remit funds from Muteesa’s assets in Uganda to England, but that such consideration was dependant on Muteesa giving “definite and unequivocal proof that he accepts the changes that have taken place in Uganda, the 1967 Constitution and the authority of the present government”.

Obote was not content with Muteesa’s dreadful life in exile. So, to complete his subjugation and the humiliation of the Baganda, he, by a stroke of a pen, “abolished” the 600-year old Kingdom of Buganda.

He then confiscated all the Kingdom’s land and assets and handed them to the State. As if that weren’t enough, he converted the Kabaka’s palace at Mengo into an army barracks. He took over the former Lukiiko (Buganda’s Parliament) and made it his new army headquarters.

The palace grounds were later to become one of Uganda’s most notorious torture chambers and killing fields.

Many people including Abu Mayanja, Mayanja Nkangi, David Ssimbwa and others were detained without trial. Many others were killed. Little surprise that, during those difficult days, the saying that “a good Muganda is a dead one” gained popularity in the corridors of power. source: DAILY MONITOR
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Uganda’s newest controversial religion: ” Happy Science Religion”. WATCH OUT,GUYS

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Uganda’s newest controversial religion: ” Happy Science Religion”-inscribed on the building as well.Imported from Japan, Happy Science advertises itself as a global religion with a goal of teaching “the truth about life, the world and ourselves.” The religion says it’s grand mission is to create a world filled with love, peace, harmony and prosperity. Christians are offended by its beliefs.they were mainly opposed by the new churches in Uganda which are mainly breakaway churches from the traditional churches!quite ironical. Its another nutcase. I feel sorry for the gullible people who may fall victims.
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2.In this photo, Ugandan Happy Science believers walk out after prayers at their church in the capital Kampala, Uganda. The Happy Science religion with origins in Japan is quickly amassing a following in Uganda, where it is winning converts in a sleek campaign that has attracted the attention of Christian clerics offended by its beliefs.
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3.In this photo taken Sunday, July 1, 2012, “Happy Science” Reverend Tomohiko Nakagawa, left, leads prayers at their church in the capital Kampala, Uganda. The “Happy Science” religion with origins in Japan is quickly amassing a following in Uganda, where it is winning converts in a sleek campaign that has attracted the attention of Christian clerics offended by its beliefs.
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‘Welcoming a tractor at the 1955 / 50yr celebrations’

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Fifty-five years later, there are only three (3) tractors (the type of Massey Ferguson that can plough) in Masaka, Bukomansimbi, Lwengo and Kalungu districts, perhaps because the land has also been too much fragmented.

One of the three tractors (my father and I call them karakita) is stationed at Kamenyamiggo Agricultural Centre.

At least let us be aware of such ugly facts to know the descending highway our country has been fast sliding especially from mid-80s. Sadly, it continues to dive into the abyss.

The Lord Bless You.
Matovu Abdallah Twaha
+971502755731
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I thought your mind would go to the bare feeted girls and how their were being exploited. we are still in this kind of exploitation except that we now invite it and accept it officially unfortunately we dont know it. This photograph makes me feel disgraced

Prof Waswa Balunywa, PhD
Makerere University Business School
P.O Box 1337,
Kampala,
Uganda.
http://www.balunywa.net
http://www.facebook.com/jw.balunywa.9

Cotton was first introduced into Uganda by K. Borup, an industrial missionary

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History on the cotton in Uganda …. A view looking along a cotton ginning plant with Ugandans at work at the machines which separate the cotton from the seeds. Cotton was first introduced into Uganda by K. Borup, an industrial missionary, who in 1903 distributed 62 bags of cotton seeds for planting. The Uganda Cotton Company, with Borup as manager, was founded in 1904. By the time of the Uganda Agricultural Exhibition in 1908 cotton output was estimated by the Governor to be worth UKP50,000 and was the major exhibit. By the time Sir Albert Cook wrote ‘Uganda Memories’ cotton output was second only to India in the Empire and it maintained this position until recent years.
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Here are the trends for the cotton industry in Uganda from 1924 to 2004. Look at details here: http://www.worldbank.org/afr/wps/WPS_123_Uganda_Cotton_Case_Study.pdf. Below are the trends in the cotton industry in Uganda
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OBOTE WASN’T THE 1ST PM OF UGANDA??

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Ben was dreaming of Uganda’s independence when all other politician including the regime iniBuganda were fast a sleep.A brilliant Lawyer as well!
One of the reasons why he formed the democratic party(D.P) was in response to the marginalisation of people of the catholic faith in Buganda by then.

Remember Uganda was a British protectorate and most Britons were Protestants,furthermore the King embrased the Anglican(Protestant) ,thus ensuring the Anglican hegemony which was also the basis of the coalition between UPC and KY.

Professor Mazrui a reknown African scholar who was lectured at Makerere University but hails from Kenya,described Uganda as the Northern Ireland of Africa.Just like Northern Ireland,ugandan politics has been largely influenced by religion,which is sad!I think all ugandans lost out from this “madness” because it eventually gave rise to Amin!!!

In the late 1960s Uganda was in a state of instability. After strengthening his military base, Idi Amin overthrew Obote’s government and forcibly took control in 1971. Amin plunged Uganda into a deep crisis and an era of ruthless persecution.

Confusion surrounded Kiwanuka’s arrest in September of 1972. Witnesses reported that armed men seized him, although a military spokesman denied the arrest and suggested that government impostors may have been responsible for the capture of several important officials. Shortly after, Amin’s forces murdered him. Kiwanuka was one of many people slaughtered during Amin’s reigning years of chaos and terror. In his book Uganda Since Independence: A Story of Unfulfilled Hopes, Phares Mutibwa asserted that Amin murdered Kiwanuka because he perceived him to be a potential rival leader.

History has it that the Late Benedicto Kiwanuka was a disciplinarian.On one occasion,he dismissed a magistrate from duty for late comming and drunkeness.This magistrate was a close friend of the late Dr Sembeguya who was the first Ugandan doctor to venture into private medical practice.It was said that when Mr Kiwanuka was murdered the Doctor organised a “party” for his demise,as a sign of pay back for having fired his magistrate friend.Late after afew months,Amins men came for the doctor’s life!Any lesson to learn???????????

MAY

 

Abu Mayanja was the first Secretary General of UNC ( Uganda National Congress ) in 1950′s. Abu Mayanja was the minister of Health in Idi Amins Government.He is now late!died some years ago.

DP was founded mainly as a party to challenge the Royal ruling class which was mainly Anglican.Thus you find that most DP suppoters up to today are Roman Catholics.Uganda having been a British protectorate and most British were Anglicans,made sure that power does not go to the catholics.Thus Bishop Brown the Archbishop then in uganda had to advise them on a coalition.Obote was anglican and so was the Monarchy thus a marriage of convinience was consumated between UPC and KY.

Each party thought after doing away with the common enemy(DP),one would out manoever the other.Obote was more cunning and the rest is history.It was this greed,sectarianism,egos which has led to the bleeding of uganda up to today.I think if DP had won i doubt if Amin would have surfaced on the scene!remember Obote appointed Amin whom he felt could use to intimidate his opponents.A very sad piece of history filled with “what if’s”.

Politics is such a funny BUT deadly venture at the same time.  on second thoughts I should say weird thing that in the process of putting power in hands of certain group leads to such chaos and brutality that couple of generations of the innocent people pay a heavy price and many others perished for ever….very sad indeed.

Religious descrimination was rife in Buganda in terms of job opportunities and caused a lot of tension.Late Ben Kiwanuka saw Uganda as a nationalist while the traditionalist had a narrow view.At the end of the day the traditionalists were the biggest losers in terms of property and lives!!!

A quiz question most people failed during our time, and may still fail today: Who was the first Prime Minister of Uganda?Answer is NOT Apollo Milton Obote.Benedicto Kiwanuka was the Chief Minister from July 1961 to February 1962. On 1st March 1962 he was appointed the first Prime Minister[P.S. I know even Wikipedia has it wrong just like most historians in Uganda].

OTHER IMPORTANT HISTORICAL EVENTS IN UGANDA

1500 – Bito dynasties of Buganda, Bunyoro and Ankole founded by Nilotic-speaking immigrants from present-day southeastern Sudan.

1700 – Buganda begins to expand at the expense of Bunyoro.

1800 – Buganda controls territory bordering Lake Victoria from the Victoria Nile to the Kagera river.

1840s – Muslim traders from the Indian Ocean coast exchange firearms, cloth and beads for the ivory and slaves of Buganda.

1862 – British explorer John Hanning Speke becomes the first European to visit Buganda.

1875 – Bugandan King Mutesa I allows Christian missionaries to enter his realm.

1877 – Members of the British Missionary Society arrive in Buganda.

1879 – Members of the French Roman Catholic White Fathers arrive.

1890 – Britain and Germany sign treaty giving Britain rights to what was to become Uganda.

1892 – Imperial British East Africa Company agent Frederick Lugard extends the company’s control to southern Uganda and helps the Protestant missionaries to prevail over their Catholic counterparts in Buganda.

1894 – Uganda becomes a British protectorate.

1900 – Britain signs agreement with Buganda giving it autonomy and turning it into a constitutional monarchy controlled mainly by Protestant chiefs.

1902 – The Eastern province of Uganda transferred to the Kenya.

1904 – Commercial cultivation of cotton begins.

1921 – Uganda given a legislative council, but its first African member not admitted till 1945.

1958 – Uganda given internal self-government. Elections held in 1961 – Benedicto Kiwanuka elected Chief Minister.

1962 – Uganda becomes independent with Milton Obote as prime minister and with Buganda enjoying considerable autonomy.

1963 – Uganda becomes a republic with Buganda’s King Mutesa II as president.

1966 – Milton Obote ends Buganda’s autonomy and promotes himself to the presidency.

1967 – New constitution vests considerable power in the president.

1971 – Milton Obote toppled in coup led by Army chief Idi Amin.

1972 – Amin expels Israelis giving them 2 weeks to leave.

1972 – Amin orders Asians who were not Ugandan citizens – around 60,000 people – to leave the country in 3 months.

1972-73 – Uganda engages in border clashes with Tanzania.

1976 – Idi Amin declares himself president for life and claims parts of Kenya.

1978 – Uganda invades Tanzania with a view to annexing Kagera region.

1979 – Tanzania invades Uganda, unifying the various anti-Amin forces under the Uganda National Liberation Front and forcing Amin to flee the country; Yusufu Lule installed as president, but is quickly replaced by Godfrey Binaisa.

1980 – Binaisa overthrown by the army.

1980 – Milton Obote becomes president after elections.

1981-86 Following the bitterly disputed elections, Ugandan bush war fought by National Resistance Army

1985 – Obote deposed in military coup and is replaced by Tito Okello.

1986 – National Resistance Army rebels take Kampala and install Yoweri Museveni as president.

1993 – Museveni restores the traditional kings, including the king of Buganda, but without political power.

1995 – New constitution legalizes political parties but maintains the ban on political activity.

1996 – Museveni returned to office in Uganda’s first direct presidential election.

2000 – Ugandans vote to reject multi-party politics in favour of continuing Museveni’s “no-party” system.

2001 January – East African Community (EAC) re-inaugurated in Arusha, Tanzania, laying groundwork for common East African passport, flag, economic and monetary integration. Members are Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya.

2001 March – Museveni wins another term in office, beating his rival Kizza Besigye by 69% to 28%. Campaign against rebels

2002 October – Army evacuates more than 400,000 civilians caught up in fight against cult-like LRA which continues its brutal attacks on villages.

2003 May – Uganda pulls out last of its troops from eastern DR Congo. Tens of thousands of DR Congo civilians seek asylum in Uganda.

2004 December – Government and LRA rebels hold their first face-to-face talks, but there is no breakthrough in ending the insurgency.

2005 July – Parliament approves a constitutional amendment which scraps presidential term limits. Voters in a referendum overwhelmingly back a return to multi-party politics.

2005 October – International Criminal Court issues arrest warrants for five LRA commanders, including leader Joseph Kony.

2006 February – President Museveni wins multi-party elections, taking 59% of the vote against the 37% share of his rival, Kizza Besigye.

2006 August – The government and the LRA sign a truce aimed at ending their long-running conflict. Subsequent peace talks are marred by regular walk-outs.

2007 March – Ugandan peacekeepers deploy in Somalia as part of an African Union mission to help stabilise the country.

2008 February – Government and the Lord’s Resistance Army sign what is meant to be a permanent ceasefire at talks in Juba, Sudan.

2008 November – The leader of the Lord’s Resistance Army, Joseph Kony, again fails to turn up for the signing of a peace agreement. Ugandan, South Sudanese and DR Congo armies launch offensive against LRA bases.

2009 The UK oil explorer Heritage Oil says it has made a major oil find in Uganda.

2009 March – Ugandan army begins to withdraw from DR Congo, where it had pursued Lord’s Resistance Army rebels.

2009 December – Parliament votes to ban female circumcision. Anyone convicted of the practice will face 10 years in jail or a life sentence if a victim dies.

2010 January – President Museveni distances himself from the anti-homosexuality Bill, saying the ruling party MP who proposed the bill did so as an individual. The European Union and United States had condemned the bill.

2010 July – Two bomb attacks on people watching World Cup final at a restaurant and a rugby club in Kampala kill at least 74 people. The Somali Islamist group Al-Shabab says it was behind the blasts.

2011 February – Museveni wins his fourth presidential election.

2011 July – US deploys special forces personnel to help Uganda combat LRA rebels.

2012 Aug- Uganda’s Stephen Kiprotich winS the Gold Medal in Marathon at the Olympics ,Uganda,s second Gold medal ever, and third Olympic medal since joining the Olympics.

 

Kabaka Mutesa 2, Prince Badru Kakungulu, Captain Ronnie Owen and Lady Damali Kisosonkole

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Kabaka Edward Muteesa II (C) upon his return from two years of exile in Britain on October 18,1955.

The lady behind Ssekabaka Mutesa is actually the late Princess Irene Ndagire (Mutesa’s sister);
The elderly lady to the extreme left of the photo is the Namasole Irene Druscilla Namaganda (Mutesa’s mother);
The elderly gentleman (next to the right shoulder of Badru Kakungulu) is the late Mzee Manyang’enda (the grandfather of John Nagenda, among others);
The white gentleman (by the Namasole) is Captain Ronnie Owen – he was a close friend of Ssekabaka Mutesa).
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Gayaza girls were allowed to wear uniforms of different colors on any given day irrespective of the class or dorm.

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1.Gayaza girls were allowed to wear uniforms of different colors on any given day irrespective of the class or dorm.This was done so that when one looked at a full class , just like the one photographed above, the students would look like flowers.I recognize quite a number of prominent women of today.Some I don’t remember names,but this is so nice.

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2. CLASS OF 1968

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King Daudi Chwa on his way to his grandfather’s tomb

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1.General Manning, the King Daudi Chwa, and Colonel Hayes Sadler are in the front. Bishop Tucker stands at the right of the photograph

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2.King Daudi Chwa on his way to his grandfather’s tomb

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3.This is supposed to be the most stately way in which a royal progress can be made.Nalinya (The sister of the Kabaka) and the Kabaka this is a coronation the two are then carried on the shoulder of the clans.However, we have to note that, carrying the Kabaka on shoulder (okukongojja) was a common practice of welcoming the Kabaka and only the Mbogo (Buffalo) clan were the only one supposed to kukongojja the king.

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4.Sir Apolo Kagwa (Katikiro of prime minister). lady Kagwa and family.

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‘The Kabaka in the uniform of a Captain in the Grenadier Guards

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1.’Walking in formal procession in the Lubiri on his 27th birthday in November 1951, the Kabaka precedes the then Resident Buganda, Mr. J.P. Birch. The Kabaka, sheltered by his ceremonial umbrella, is about to walk past his Royal drummers and musicians.’

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2.second left Daudi Chwa, second right Ham Mukasa?

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3.’The Kabaka in the uniform of a Captain in the Grenadier Guards. He underwent military training during his stay in Britain, where he studied at Magdalene College, Cambridge.’
he inimitable Sir Edward, whose academic and military accomplishments made even the academically accomplished Milton Obote uncomfortable and, eventually, unwilling to share power with him. Yet Sir Edward made his mark on the world. At Magdalene College, he won the highest marks for shooting, winning the cup for the college. His book, Desecration of My Kingdom, is a notable contribution to Uganda’s history.

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4.’The Nasolo, Princess Dorothy, with her mother, the Nabagereka, after their meeting at Entebbe Airport on the Nsolo’s return from London a few months ago. SHe had been undergoing treatment at the Great Ormond Street Children’s Hospital for the after-effects of poliomyelitis.’.Yes indeed, she grew up to became a friend to many and held her family together

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5. Ham Mukasa

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At his home in London, the Kabaka studies a copy of the new Buganda Agreement

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1.’At his home in London, a flat in Eaton Place, the Kabaka studies a copy of the new Buganda Agreement. at Mengo, he will sign this Agreement with the Governor of Uganda, Sir Andrew Cohen.’. The Buganda Agreement, 1955 can be read on the folowing link: http://www.wdl.org/en/item/7775/

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2.’After their wedding in 1943, the Kabaka and the Nabagareka leave in an open car.’

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3. I believe there is a prince Badru Kakungulu in this photo

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‘Gayaza High School:3rd from left, Irene Drusilla Namaganda who became Queen Namasole of Buganda/GOMESI

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‘Gayaza High School.  3rd from left, Irene Drusilla Namaganda who became Queen Namasole of Buganda.
3rd from right, Sanyu Mulira who became Mrs. Paulo Mukasa’

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Irene Drusilla Namaganda was born in 1896.Irene Drusilla Namaganda became the Nnabagereka (Queen) when she married King Chwa II. After his death she was the Queen Mother (Namasole) of her son King Mutesa II. The title of Nabagereka was new, created by Chwa II. Previously the wife of the King was called the Kaddulubaale. The Kaddulubaale had no official role, the First Lady was the Lubuga, a sister of the King. The Namasole was, however, a powerful person at court from ancient times.

Sanyu is wearing a suuka, the traditional dress of a maiden. It was an ankle length backcloth (later a length of cotton) wrapped around the body and belted at the waist. At the request of the headmistress of Gayaza High sch, a Goan tailor named Gomes modified the suuka to create a school uniform for Gayaza. By adding sleeves to the suuka the elegant robe recently some people(Otto Patrick & Co) dont want to call it a Kiganda dress- was invented. It was thus called the Gomesi, or the ” boarding” (after boarding school) or busuuti (the name of the robe worn by male VIPs over their kanzu).

I am sure Namasole is Queen Mother. The role of Namasole was really given its greatest focus when Mutesa I’s mother died. Alex Mackay was asked to make a coffin for her. The first coffin in Uganda’s history is said to have been that of Mutesa’s mother. Mutesa had asked Mackay what arrangements were made in royal burials the UK. Mackay’s explanation of Westminster Abbey arrangements led to Mutesa to ask Mackay to make a coffin for his mother and the Baganda royal builders to erect Kasubi Tombs to equal Westminster Abbey in stature and grandeur.

 

‘King Freddie and Queen Damali: a photo worth printing and keeping in your lounge

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This is a great portrait of this jubilee period

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3.’His Holiness prays at the Church of Uganda Shrine at Numugongo. With him is the Archbishop of Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi and the Bishop of Namirembe’

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The Reason why most Baganda will never forgive Obote and UPC! Mutesa looked so tired after a long journey

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End of Sir Edward Mutesa’s 400 mile journey on foot. Here he has just arrived in Burundi after being exiled from Uganda.We lost a great King Bse of Obote and UPC.Looking at this makes cry. This marked the starting point of the destruction of Buganda!! The Kawenkene era. I dont care if he later drunk himself silly while in London but Obote contributed to his eventual death in exile. They killed him and they will never be forgiven!

 

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2.Before Sir Edward Mutesa II died he made his son Ronald Mutebi heir to the kingdom. Here he is with him just after he had arrived in London.

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3.November 19, 1948 was a great day in the life of Sir Edward Mutesa II, it’s the day he got married to Lady Damali Nakawombe. So respect all the ladies whose surname is ‘NAKAWOMBE’ like UAH’s Rev. Jessical Nakawombe

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The last photograph before the Kabaka Mutesa 11′s departure from Uganda

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1.’Gayaza High School.
3rd from left, Irene Drusilla Namaganda who became Queen Namasole of Buganda.
3rd from right, Sanyu Mulira who became Mrs. Paulo Mukasa’

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2.’The last photograph before the Kabaka’s departure from Uganda. It was taken on his 29th birthday, November 19, 1953, outside the Kabaka’s palace, where he sits surrounded by his Ministers, and Chiefs, the Abakama of Bunyoro, Toro and Ankole, and religious and civil leaders.’kk

3.’A delightful family study of the Kabaka’s children – the Kiwewa and his four-year-old sister, Princess Dorothy, teken shortly after Princess Dorothy’s return from London, where she was treated for the after-effects of poliomyclitis.’

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THE MOST HANDSOME KABAKA OF BUGANDA

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1. Edith Nakazaana seated =daughter Ham Mukasa, middle is Princess Irene Ndagire Kabaka Mutebi’s aunt and & Jessie Kitamirike

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2.the late Mr. Mackay Kalula MUKASA (brother to the late Mrs Rebecca Allen Namugenze MULIRA)

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3. Ssekabaka Sir Edward Muteesa II.Perhaps the most dashingly handsome King of Buganda Kingdom;who ever lived;he was light years ahead of his time,few folks both from within the Kingdom and outside;quite understood his love and vision and the direction;he passionately wanted his nation to take.Modern and well educated and well decorated army officer trained by the British;he read through the glaring hypocrises of the Imperial England,he was humiliated by deportations in 1953 to England for being part and parcel of Independence agitators as his people led the nation in calling for independence and self rule.I hope history will be compassionate towards him.

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MRS. Miria Obote was such a beautiful woman at a young age

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1.His – Holiness greets the First Lady of Uganda Mrs. Miria Obote at Entebbe Airport

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2.Family Ya Zachary Makaabugo Ssensalire Ntambi the 17th in Mukono

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3.Sarah N. Mukasa with Edith Nakasana standing next to nash Reg. No. K. 3066 in Mukono

 

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Princess Dorothy Nasolo with her great grand father Chief Ham Mukasa ex-sekibobo in Mokono

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Princess Dorothy Nasolo with her great grand father Chief Ham Mukasa ex-sekibobo in Mokono

2.The seven Cardinals who took part in the Pan-Africa Bishops’ Conference at Gaba, near Kampala. They are (left to right): Cardinal Zoungrana (Upper Volta), Cardinal Duval (Algeria), Cardinal McCann (South Africa), Cardinal Rugambwa (Tanzania), Cardinal Rakotomala (Madagascar), Cardinal Sidarous (Egypt), and Cardinal Malula (Congo-Kinshasa).

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This story is not usually told for obvious reasons but No chief would dare tell Mr. Ham Mukasa what to do.

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Standing: Edward Galbuzi, Kezekiya Matiko, Dorothy Seruuba, Catherine Kawalya, Leah Mukasa, Rebecca Mulira, Christine Namukasa, Ida Mukasa, Mackay Mukasa
Seating: Canon Peter Kigozi, Durusila Namasole, Sarah Mukasa, Hamu Mukasa, Yosiya Sensalire, Yakobo Mulinyabigo
On the floor: Geroge Kasede, Barbara Mukasa

George Kasede is very much alive and running the Ham Mukasa Famliy Foundation.

Look at the people seated and the names Canon Peter Kigozi (RIP) and Durusila Namasole (RIP).  That is why the photo is important. Canon Peter Kigozi (RIP) pased way I think last year in his 90s.  Durusila Namasole (RIP) was the mother of Kabaka Mutesa (RIP). She shocked the conservative Mmengo establishment when after being widowed; she married then Reverend Peter Kigozi.  Some of the chiefs went nuts.

They actually moved a motion in the Lukiiko banning Reverend Kigozi and Durusila Namasole-Mrs Irene Durusila Namaganda -from being within 50 miles of Kampala?Mmengo.  Mark you she was the mother of the siting Kabaka Muteesa.  They were banished to Kyaggwe and settled near Mr Ham Mukasa’s home.  Basically Mr. Ham Mukasa offered to take care of The Kabaka’s mother.

The motion by the Lukiiko had no impact on The Kabaka who continued to drive to Kyaggwe to visit his mother and hang out with Mr Ham Mukasa regularly. Think about it. The Lukiiko had passed a motion banning Durusila Namasole (RIP) –the Kabaka’s mother-from being within 50 miles of Kampala/Mmengo.

Why did the chiefs or Lukiiko ban the newlywed couple from being within 50 miles of Mmnego? Nnugu. Because what the late Durusila Namasole (RIP) did was revolutionary in that it had never happened before in Buganda.

If you will, she was one of the pioneer feminists or advocated for gender equality in Uganda.  A lot was at stake, but she was widowed young and decided to re-marry. For the conservative chiefs and members of the Lukiiko that was a taboo. But she never gave a DAMN.  Remember she did what men routinely did; re-marry upon being widowed.  She married Reverend Kigozi (RIP), dared Mmengo/Lukiiko and had a happy life together until her death in 1957.  They had one son who has since passed away.

Another reason the chiefs behaved that way is because many felt that it should have been them and not Reverend Kigozi to have a go at her. They were pissed off and banned the couple from Mmengo.

Abbey Semuwemba: this story is not usually told for obvious reasons.  No chief would dare tell Mr. Ham Mukasa what to do.

The late Durusila Namasole (RIP) is buried at Namirembe Cathedral grounds.

I will let you know when the book which has been written about that episode is published. It has been written and will soon be published.

The late Mrs Rebeca Mulira (RIP) is Mr Ham Mukasa’s daughter who donated the papers to Cambridge University.  That is all for now.

 

1. Mr & Mrs Ham & Hannah Mukasa. Robert & Dorothy Sebuliba. 1901. At Mengo outside his father’s House near the post office in mengo

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2.On the right Ham Mukasa

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3. Mr Ham Mukasa with Kabaka Daudi Chwa II. the photo was made when they were in Britain in 1913

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4.The Right Rev. Bishop Alfred Tucker’

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Obote introduces judges to His Holiness on the steps of Parliament Buildings

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His Excellency, the President of Uganda, introduces judges to His Holiness on the steps of Parliament Buildings

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Nuwa Mbaguta was the PM of modern Ankole. he dressed like a Muslim.As you can see this is a pretty moldy photograph, badly damaged by moist.

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H.H. the Kabaka with Mr. Parma-Ntanda at 12 Eaton place, London: May, 1955

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1.[from left to right] Semei Kiyimba * Ham Mukasa * Bulasio Mwebe * Tefiro Kisosonkole.
[seated] Sir Daudi Chwa

2. Fr. Simeon Lourdel. The first Catholic missionary to Uganda

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3. H.H. the Kabaka with Mr. Parma-Ntanda at 12 Eaton place, London: May, 1955

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‘King Freddie and Queen Damali’

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2.’This is a photograph of Idi Amin and his entourage soon after he had overthrown the Government and dissolved Parliament,

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‘The Pope gives a gold medal and chain to one of the catechumens he baptised. The young man is wearing the traditional costume of an Acholi chief’

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The Mugabe of Ankole with the Queen and the Duke’

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2.’Rebecca President of the Uganda Council of Women chatting with Miss World – Kampala 1970′

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3.’At Katungwuru the Mugabe of Ankole waits for the Queen to land.’

 

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4.’Mr & Mrs Ham & Hannah Mukasa. Robert & Dorothy Sebuliba. 1901. At Mengo outside his father’s House near the post office’

 

 

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‘Some delegates of the all Africa conference of churches. 1958′.Third from right (front row) is the late Mrs Rebecca Mulira.

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‘Some delegates of the all Africa conference of churches. 1958′.Third from right (front row) is the late Mrs Rebecca Mulira

Third from right (front row) is the late Mrs Rebecca Mulira.

Third from right (front row) is the late Mrs Rebecca Mulira.

source: UGANDA HISTORY IN PROGRESS ON FACEBOOK